The argan tree is a multi-purpose tree (fruit tree, medicinal, cosmetic, and pastoral plant) found in the semi-arid and arid regions of North Africa. It is under strong human pressure such as the impact of population growth, crop expansion, overgrazing, and wood and fruit exploitation that are also the main causes of desertification in the rest of the world. Over the years, interest in this beneficial tree and demand for its products have increased: especially with the increase in the price of argan oil, which is now one of the most expensive and much in demand oils in the world. This increase has led to many socio-political, economic and cultural changes at the national, regional and local levels, especially in farming behaviour and the habits of the local population. This bibliographic research was therefore conducted in order to analyse the various changes and their consequences on the planning, conservation, and management methods implemented in the argan tree area and their effects on the habits of the local population in order to ensure the sustainability of the Argan Tree Biosphere Reserve in Morocco. Indeed, the aims of this study were, firstly, to analyse the change dynamic of argan forest area in the ABR; and secondly, to investigate the impact of various socio-political, economic and cultural changes resulting from increased prices of argan oil on planning, conservation, and management methods of argan tree ecosystem and on the habits of the local population.
Over the years, it has been the subject of discussions whether efficiency-oriented interventions contribute to an equity distribution of wealth across regions and whether equity orientation is a source of inefficiency. While efficiency refers to the maximization of growth in the national economy, convergence-oriented policy is focused on equalizing the level of development at interregional level. The case of Georgia was studied as a developing country facing various challenges in terms of economic growth and regional divergence. This article provides an overview of the economic development trends taking place in the regions of Georgia and reveals the high level of divergence within the country. A logarithmic model was created and used to run simulations to predict the possible results of convergence-oriented policy in Georgia. In order to make the forecast we estimated GDP per capita and average growth rates in all the Georgian regions. Use of the model allowed us to answer two main questions: (1) If the last 5 and 10 year average growth rates are maintained, how long will it take for the poorest region to converge to the wealthiest one? (2) What should be the minimum growth rate in the poorest region for the upcoming 5, 10 and 20 years in order to converge to the wealthiest capital? Results of the calculations showed that convergence between regions can only be achieved by slowing down economic growth in relatively wealthier regions and by focusing on the development of the poorest ones. The results of the study revealed that the convergence process will be faster for the regions with medium or big cities and growth centres. Therefore, creating competitive growth centres would be a reasonable regional policy objective to promote fast economic growth and future convergence without redirecting the growth process from more developed areas to lagging ones.
Climate change is a major global issue, which is becoming increasingly important on the international scene. As it has a direct impact on ecosystems and societies. Water is at the heart of these changes. The aim of this article was to capture all the microeconomic and macroeconomic effects of resource availability, and to propose a sequential dynamic computable general equilibrium (CGE) model that takes into account long-term changes in the availability of the primary resource (water supply) with regard to population growth (demand). The results show that the very negative effects on the economy of water shortages could be counteracted by the introduction of a marginal cost demand management policy. This makes it possible to better manage the scarcity of this resource. In fact, the model shows that when Algeria is facing water deficits, the marginal cost tariff policy reverses the trends of an economy that would maintain a tariff policy at average cost. Total investment increases, and total welfare deteriorates less. The drop in the price of water (input and final good), generated by the transition from an average cost pricing to a marginal cost pricing, generates an expansion of many sectors, and stimulates economic activity which reduces the rate of unemployment.
An Environmental Risk Assessment is an efficient technical and analytical method for analyzing environmental impacts and it supports the decision-making process connected with projects variants by using historical data collection, identification of regional risk sources, probability and impact estimation of signal risk type. In this article, an Environmental Risk Assessment was performed for groundwater quality in the region of municipal landfills in Tychy-Urbanowice (Southern Poland) to assess the impact of various factors on the quality of groundwater in the region. The assessment used qualitative and quantitative risk analysis methods, including cause and consequence analysis, completion of an effect/probability matrix and utilization of the SWOT analysis method. The results of the assessment indicate that use of the SWOT analysis was the best method for groundwater risk assessment in the examined area. The analysis included an assessment of the spatial and temporal variability of leachate and groundwater quality (using data from a groundwater monitoring system), simulation of the longevity of both the top and bottom security system, spatial planning and an assessment of the impact of other parameters on groundwater, terrain and climatic conditions. The overall result for this analysis for the likely potential groundwater hazard was a score of -4. For the purposes of further risk analyses, it is possible to consider additional factors that are likely to affect the water quality of the area under investigation or to use other methods that will be based on a time series analysis.
Energy needs are determined by three main factors: population growth, the economic development of society, and the scientific and technical level of production processes. These needs are increasing year by year in the world and in 2018 they exceeded 13.5 billion tons of oil equivalent. More and more countries are developing and implementing plans and strategies for significant coverage, within 50-100%, of their energy needs through renewable energy sources. The findings of this study revealed that Ukraine’s energy demand per year is 200 million tons of oil equivalent of energy resources. Currently, the share of renewable energy in the structure of energy consumption in Ukraine is 4.4%. The authors also acknowledged that at the same time, 115 million tons of agricultural plant waste and about 97 million tons of animal waste are generated annually in Ukraine, which makes it possible to produce 7.21 million tons of oil equivalent and 2.2 million tons of oil equivalent, respectively from these. The study found that the production of biofuels from agricultural waste will have social, economic and environmental effects. An efficiency matrix was constructed by the authors to determine these effects. Using the SWOT method of analysis, factors that will affect the development of biofuel production from agricultural waste were determined.
Mining is essentially an important income generating activity in the developing countries of the world. This is beneficial for their social and economic development and thus developing countries place a great dependence on their exploitation of mineral resources. The focal points for discussion in this article are the process of limestone mining, growth trends in limestone production, allocation of royalties, benefit sharing between limestone miners and local communities. The article undertakes an income-expenditure analysis of limestone contractors and transporters and considers local environmental issues including land degradation, rehabilitation, and compensation problems connected with the mining process. This study has been carried out in the Banor-Shiva limestone mining region which is located in the Sirmaur District of Himachal Pradesh State in India. The study calculated compound annual growth rates and benefit sharing between the miners and local people, and made a calculation of transport costs based on the mining rules in force and the actual practice prevailing in the region. The overall compound annual growth rates for limestone production are 16.2%, 1.6 % and 3.9% and for royalties are 14.1%, 8.5%, and 7.8 5 respectively for the State, District, and Banor-Shiva mining region over the study period. However, these growth rates have continuously decelerated and even found to be negative between the periods following the National Mineral Policies Act of 1993 and 2008. There is a sizeable divergence between the benefits from limestone mining shared between the indigenous communities and limestone miners highlighting the poor land acquisition practices in the study area. The financial benefits awarded by the miners in 2016-17 to the local communities are 1.22% whereas miners have appropriated the lion’s share with 81.37% of total limestone value. The revenue to the Government is 4.30% of market value of limestone. The transportation of limestone from quarry sites to the point of final sale is the largest cost factor in limestone miners’ expenditure which is 10% of the total market value of limestone. Adverse impacts of limestone mining operations in the vicinity such as public health problems, change in land use and cropping patterns, water pollution, lack of rehabilitation of the abandoned mines and unjust division of limestone receipts are the main contentious issues in the study area which are affecting the production and process of limestone mining. These have been reflected in the declining growth rates in production and royalties accrued from limestone produce.
The status of the availability of water resources in DKI (Indonesia’s Special Region of) Jakarta has reached a critical phase. Determination of progressive tariffs by the DKI Jakarta Provincial Government in 2007 aimed to encourage water users to use water resources rationally and in a sustainable way. However, since the launch of the policy, there has been no evaluation to determine the effectiveness of these progressive tariffs. This research analysed empirical data to examine the effect of policy interventions on water use behaviour in DKI Jakarta. An analysis was carried out by calculating water usage before progressive tariffs were applied and comparing them to water use after the tariffs were applied. Another analysis calculated the number of customers before and after the implementation of progressive tariffs and compared the changes. The increase in water prices plotted are stated in nominal value by assuming the average level of inflation in Jakarta (especially the price of water) was nearly under 2 percent and the price of water was not controlled by the market mechanism The results of this study indicate that before progressive tariffs were applied, water consumption had declined despite an increase in the number of customers, however, water consumption increased after the implementation. This shows that progressive tariffs are effective instruments to distribute clean water access through cross-subsidies, however, it has no effect on consumption levels.
This paper proposes a new methodology for assessing the potential of sustainable tourism. It examines the overall potential of the landscape when faced with the negative impacts of tourism. Our assessment combines components of tourism and environmental sustainability. The methodology involved consultation with experts, and verification by tourists before being applied to the study area. The methodology was then applied to selected tourism centres in the Giant Mountains. The Giant Mountains are a popular tourist destination thanks to their outstanding natural beauty, and represent significant potential for tourism development. They are also one of the most over-burdened regions from tourism in the Czech Republic. However, many negative impacts of tourism exist, reducing the overall tourism potential of the region. Comparative results from the individual tourist centres in the study reveal the significant impact of potentially reducing attributes. Our assessment of the potential for sustainable tourism development in the area thus combines the environmental aspect of sustainable forms of tourism, with the identification of the most serious threats that need to be avoided to maintain the environment in the long-term. The results reveal the significant impact of excessive and inappropriate infrastructure and housing, as well as insufficient environmental education and legislation.
Starting from the 1970s, the discussion about the negative effects of human activity on the world has accelerated and with a increasingly raised voice and it has been noted that the natural balance of our world was being altered. The World Health Organization has focused its policies and directives on strategies aimed on dealing with climate change (and its impact on human health), and diseases related to air pollution and implementing health-related sustainable development goals in climate friendly-hospitals. Hospitals exist to treat patients, but they also pollute the environment because hospitals consume a lot of energy and water and produce hazardous waste. These organizations need to work hard to improve their carbon footprints. The study investigated practices at 21 public hospitals in Konya, Turkey. Results show that domestic waste was on average 54.83 tons per year, medical waste was 33.59 tons per year and packing waste was 24.36 tons per year. It was determined that medical waste disposal costs on average of €26,800 per annum, and the amount of medical waste per bed was 1.15 kilograms per annum. According to 2014 medical waste data the average medical waste per bed of these hospitals in Konya province is less than the average in Turkish public hospitals, in which it is 1.18 kilograms per bed. The hospitals in our study were found to be especially inadequate at water management and did not pay much attention to green practices.
Nowadays climate change is amongst the most critical problems affecting the wellbeing of human beings. In Ethiopia, where the majority of the population rely on agriculture, climate change has adverse effects. In rural areas, low resilient capacity to shocks exacerbates the impacts of climate change such as production failure, which in turn enormously contributed to food insecurity. In view of this fact, this study assessed the perceptions and practices of climate change and related adaptation and mitigation strategies among farmers in the Konta Special District, Southern Ethiopia, by using a mixed research approach involving a concurrent method of data collection and analysis. Quantitative data for this study was generated from 296 randomly selected survey households; while, qualitative data was collected through focus group discussions, key informant interviews, and in-depth interviews. The findings of this study revealed that sample respondents recognized the occurrence climate change and its increasing adverse effects. Regarding its cause, a substantial proportion (46.8%) of the respondents perceived climate change as the wrath of God and a natural phenomenon rather than attributing it to human activities. Participants also acknowledged that anthropogenic factors such as deforestation are the major driving factors for climate change. The study found that farmers affirmatively perceive the feasibility of the majority of the strategies embraced in the Climate Resilient Green Economy initiative endorsed at national level. Understanding that climate change effects are less reversible, farmers were found to practice mitigation strategies such as afforestation, agroforestry and agricultural intensification more than adaptation strategies. Adaptation strategies such as fuel conservation technologies were perceived costly and complex given the economic capacity and skill of farmers. Hence, rural and agricultural development policies should initiate context sensitive adaptation and mitigation strategies to enhance the capability of smallholders to deal with the effects of climate change.