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Open access

M. Kožár, H. Hamilton and J. Koščová

Abstract

Skin wounds are a common presentation in small animal practice. The successful management of wound healing in dogs and cats requires knowledge of the physiology of the wound healing process and the application of an appropriate therapeutic intervention. Many wounds are colonised by bacteria or show signs of clinical infection. Infections can delay wound healing, impair cosmetic outcome and increase healthcare costs. Because of a lack of papers giving an overall prevalence of bacteria in different types of wounds, 45 samples were taken from patients treated at the Small Animals Clinic, Section of Surgery, Orthopaedics, Roentgenology and Reproduction of the University of Veterinary Medicine and Pharmacy in Košice during the years 2017 — 2018 to determine the types of wounds and the prevalence of bacterial contamination of the wounds. Samples were obtained by using cotton-tipped swabs and then cultivated on Sabouraud’s plates in the Institute of Microbiology and Gnotobiology of the University. All 45 animals used in this research were first subjected to an anatomical and clinical exam to determine the patient’s health condition and the status of the wounds. Of these 45 samples, 9 were negative. Of the remaining 36 samples, 12 were cultivated and tested to give only the genera of the bacteria present, whilst 24 were tested more extensively for a specific diagnosis of the species. The most common wound was due to a bite from another animal; these made up 12 out of the 45 cases (26.67 %). There were 10 cases of dehiscence of old wounds (22.22 %), whereas there were only 2 cases of surgical wound complications (4.44 %). There were 5 puncture wounds or fistulas (11.11 %), 4 lacerations (8.88 %), 1 degloving injury (2.22 %), 1 seroma (2.22 %), 1 foreign body (2.22 %), 1 crushing injury (2.22 %), 1 case of contusion and necrosis (2.22 %), 1 cases of dermatitis with resulting pruritic lesions (2.22 %), and 1 cutting injury from a tight wire collar (2.22 %). Five cases (11.11 %) were wounds of unknown aetiology. The most commonly found bacteria was Staphylococcus intermedius, which was found in 14 out of the 45 wounds (31.11 %). From this study it appears that the first consideration for treatment of infected wounds should be a treatment plan which will have a high efficacy against Staphylococcus spp. However, despite the high prevalence of Staphylococcus spp., our results revealed that they are not present all of the time.

Open access

Y. Nechiporuk, V. Novak and V. Dudka

Abstract

The comparative studies of the tarsal joint capsule of cattle (Bos taurus) and canines (Canis lupus) have clarified general patterns of the structural organization of a joint capsule and the species-specific features of its angioarchitectonics. The differences in the formation of the fibroelastic layer and the location of vascular fields in the cases of animals with different stances were established. The zones of intensive intraorganic vascularization of the joint capsule were revealed; that being—the plantar and dorsal surface in the case of cattle, the lateral and medial surfaces—in case of the canine.

Open access

K. Huňáková, M. Hluchý, M. Kuricová, K. Ševčík, J. Rosocha and V. Ledecký

Abstract

Exosomes are nanovesicles that are involved in inter-cellular communication and are secreted by many types of cells. Exosomes secreted by stem cells can effectively transport bioactive proteins, messenger ribonucleic acids (mRNAs) and microribonucleic acids (miRNAs) organelles and play important roles in intercellular communication and the regulation of tissue regeneration. This transfer of bioactive molecules plays a main role in: tumor invasion and metastasis, immune and inflammation modulation, epithelial-mesenchymal transition and neurobiology. Mesenchymal Stem Cells (MSC) exosomes provide new perspectives for the development of an off-the-shelf and cell-free MSC therapy for the treatment of cartilage injuries and osteoarthritis. This report describes the progress in exosome studies and potential clinical use for osteoarthritis treatment.

Open access

M. Harčárová, E. Čonková and Z. Sihelská

Abstract

The cereals are a suitable substrate for the growth of microscopic filamentous fungi. Micromycetes are capable of reducing the nutritional value of feedstuff and they can produce several mycotoxins. The most frequent genera of microscopic filamentous fungi are Fusarium, Penicillium, Alternaria and Aspergillus. The contamination by microscopic fungi and mycotoxins was determinated in 56 samples of feed cereals originating from the Slovak Republic. The most common genera of fungi detected in the feed cereals included: Alternaria (67.8 %), Fusarium (44.6 %), Penicillium (39.2 %), Mucor (30.3 %), Rhizopus (28.5 %), Cladosporium (21.4 %), Scopulariopsis (8.9 %) and Aspergillus (1.7 %). Deoxynivalenol was present in 24 samples (42.8 %) and zearalenone in 15 samples (26.7 %). The values of both mycotoxins did not reach the regulatory limits and thus they do not pose a risk to livestock nutrition.

Open access

A. B. Ayinmode and O. O. Falohun

Abstract

Cryptosporidium infections has been reported in several avian species including chickens, pigeons and game birds where these infections had been identified to cause either enteric or respiratory diseases. However, little data exists on the molecular characterization of Cryptosporidium species in ducks, especially those in frequent contact with humans. The aim of this study was to detect the Cryptosporidium species infecting domestic ducks in two major live bird markets. A total of 109 fresh faecal samples were collected from all the ducks available on sale in the two markets. The detection of Cryptosporidium species was conducted by microscopy. All positive samples were confirmed by the nested PCR amplification and the nucleotide sequencing of the 18S rRNA genes. The results demonstrated that the prevalence of Cryptosporidium infection in ducks using microscopy was 11.0 % (12/109). There was a higher prevalence 14.0 % (7/50) in ducks from Ibadan compared with those 8.5 % (5/59) obtained from Oyo town. All positive samples by microscopy were also positive using the nested PCR and the DNA sequencing of the secondary PCR products from the 18S rRNA genes which revealed the presence of Cryptosporidium parvum. This study revealed that natural infections of C. parvum may occur in ducks in close contact with humans and other domestic animals and therefore suggests that cryptosporidiosis in ducks may be of public health importance.

Open access

R. Vlčková and D. Sopková

Abstract

Yucca is an important source of biologically active substances such as steroidal saponins and stilbenes providing many beneficial effects when administered to humans and other animals. These substances offer a great potential in the prevention and treatment of current civilized diseases as well as to their: antioxidant, hypocholesterolaemic, anti-inflammatory, phytoestrogenic, pro-apoptotic, anti-proliferative, and anti-carcinogenic properties. This review focuses on the roles of two main yucca constituent groups and their ability to modulate ovarian functions and female reproductive performance. Both the biological activity of yucca substances and the mechanisms of their actions on ovaries are still incompletely understood. Thus, the direct effects of yucca extract on ovarian cells in animal models under in vitro conditions, as well as actions after yucca consumption will be discussed.

Open access

M. Fedorová, R. Nemcová, D. Mudroňová, E. Styková, M. Brudňáková and K. Reiffová

Abstract

This study investigated a possible relationship between exopolysaccharides (EPS) production and the resistance to bile salts and low pH in intestinal strains of Lactobacillus reuteri. The strains displayed a mucoid phenotype, when grown in the presence of 10 % sucrose. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) revealed strands of exopolysaccharide linking neighbouring cells. The strains (except L. reuteri B1/1) produced EPS in the range from 15.80 to 650.70 mg.l−1. The strains were tested for tolerance to bile salts (0.15; 0.3 %) and low pH (1.5—2.0—2.5—3.0). The survival rate, after the treatment with artificial gastric and intestinal juices, was determined by flow cytometric analysis. The strains of L. reuteri that produced 121—650 mg.l−1 of EPS showed a significantly higher tolerance (P < 0.001) to the gastric juice at pH 3 and 2.5, throughout the entire exposure time, in comparison to the strains that produced less than 20 mg.l−1 of EPS. L. reuteri L26, with the highest production of EPS, exhibited the highest survival rate (60 %) at pH 2 after the 120 minutes of in-cubation and was able to tolerate pH 1.5 for 30 minutes. Higher production of EPS significantly (P < 0.001) increased the strains’ tolerance against the intestinal juice in the presence of 0.15 and 0.3 % bile salts and was time dependent. L. reuteri L26 showed the highest tolerance (P < 0.001) against 0.3 % bile salts. This investigation revealed a positive correlation between the EPS production and the resistance of intestinal L. reuteri to the stress conditions of the gastrointestinal tract (GIT).

Open access

R. A. Ajadi, J. L. Sanni and E. L. Sobayo

Abstract

This study compares the coxofemoral parameters used for the detection of hip dysplasia in humans with Norberg angles in Boerboel dogs. Twenty adult Boerboel dogs of both sexes (mean weight: 54.0 ± 7.54 kg) were used. They were premedicated with Xylazine (0.5 mg.kg−1) and induced with a propofol (4 mg.kg−1) injection. Extended antero-posterior radiographs of the hip were obtained with a digital X-ray machine. Linear Femoral Overlap (LFO), Norberg Angle (NA), Sourcil Sector Angle (SSA), Center Edge Angle (CEA) and Acetabular Index Angle (AIA) were determined. The inter- and intra-observer variability were calculated from inter- and intra- class correlation coefficient using the analysis of variance (ANOVA). Fischer’s exact test was used to define the statistically significant difference in measurements between sexes and hip dysplasia status. A significant difference was set at P < 0.05. The intra-observer agreement was high for NA and CEA, moderate for AIA, but low for SSA and LFO, while inter-observer agreement was high for NA and CEA, moderate for LFO and AIA, but very low for SSA. There was no significant (P < 0.05) difference in the measured parameters between male and female Boerboels, however, NA and CEA were significantly (P < 0.05) lower in Boerboels with hip dysplasia than those with normal hips. The CEA does not have advantage over NA for radiographic screening of dogs with hip dysplasia.

Open access

R. Szabóová, Z. Faixová, Z. Maková and E. Piešová

Abstract

The mucus layer of the intestinal tract plays an important role of forming the front line of innate host defense. Recent studies have suggested that the involvement of feeding natural additives on protection/prevention/promotion of mucus production in the intestinal environment is beneficial. The goblet cells continually produce mucins for the retention of the mucus barrier under physiological conditions, but different factors (e. g. microorganisms, microbial toxins, viruses, cytokines, and enzymes) can have profound effects on the integrity of the intestinal epithelium covered by a protective mucus. The intestinal mucus forms enterocytes covered by transmembrane mucins and goblet cells produce by the secreted gel-forming mucins (MUC2). The mucus is organized in a single unattached mucus layer in the small intestine and in two mucus layers (inner, outer) in the colon. The main part of the review evaluates the effects of natural additives/substances supplementation to stimulate increased expression of MUC2 mucin in the intestine of animals.

Open access

A. Balicka, M. Lapšanská, M. Halán and A. Trbolová

Abstract

Thelaziosis is a parasitic disease of the eye that has become more common in Europe over the last twenty years. It is caused by a nematode, order Spirurida, family Thelaziidae. The transmission of this parasite occurs by the dipteran flies. Thelazia callipaeda occurs in the conjunctival sac, under the third eyelid or in the lacrimal ducts, causing blepharospasm, conjunctivitis, keratitis and sometimes corneal ulceration. Thelaziosis is a zoonotic disease. It occurs in humans, domestic animals and wildlife. Between 2016 and 2018 three cases of canine ocular thelaziosis occurred in dogs admitted to the Small Animals Clinic in Kosice, Slovakia. In all cases, the systemic and local treatments were administered. The parasites were removed from the conjunctival sac. The identification of Thelazia callipaeda was performed by microscopic examinations.