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Open access

Alex Ansong

Abstract

The prohibition of armed aggression under Article 2(2) of the United Nations Charter is one of the most important developments in international law and international relations in the modern era. The fact that the right to wage war is no longer accepted as falling within the sovereignty of the state has ushered in an appreciably stable international order based on the rule of law and not the rule of might. While states obviously still engage in warfare and numerous wars have been fought by states in the era of the UN, the very fact that the prohibition of armed aggression has assumed universal acceptance as customary international law is a notable achievement. In spite of the prohibition of armed aggression under the UN Charter, self-defence and collective action mandated by the UN Security Council serve as notable exceptions. The US-led invasion of Iraq in 2003 (i.e. Operation Iraqi Freedom) was peculiar because, the justification for the invasion hinged on the enforcement of UN Security Council Resolutions. This justification thus brought to the fore whether, under international law, there was the right to unilaterally enforce Security Council Resolutions. In the current resurgence of unilateralism typified by the US Trumpled withdrawal or threat of withdrawal from multilateral systems of international governance and cooperation, it is important to reiterate the lessons of unilateralism epitomized by the 2003 invasion of Iraq and the instabilities that have become offshoots of this invasion – e.g. the creation of monsters like the so-called Islamic State. This article discusses the resort to unilateralism under the guise of enforcing UN Security Council resolutions. It also engages in a brief discussion on the justifications for war prior to the UN Charter and the provisions on the use of force prescribed in the Charter. It uses the US-led invasion of Iraq in 2003 as a case study to shed light on legality of unilateral enforcement of UN Security Council Resolutions.

Open access

Daniel Berlingher

Abstract

The present text is dedicated to analysing the situation of Member States’ compliance with EU law in the field of Internal Market because it is one of the most important aspects of the process of European consolidation. In the introductory part we presented the central role of the European Commission because it is the institution that monitors the implementation of the EU law in the national legal order of each Member State. At the centre of our analysis is the 2017 Annual Report of the European Commission. Here we presented in a schematic manner the European norms that the Member States had to implement in their legal order in 2017. We concluded our research by presenting the evolution of this complex process with reference to the data furnished by the Single Market Scoreboard. The situation did not know a significant improvement in the process of Member States’ compliance with EU law. We can see that things evolved but we consider that this evolution could have been better if Member States would have dedicated more attention to this process.

Open access

Russell Stanley Q. Geronimo

Abstract

The interface between securitization law and insolvency law is the central legal concern in designing securitization transactions. The complex structure of these transactions under the Securitization Act of 2004 should be understood within a specific legal context: the possible bankruptcy, insolvency, or liquidation of the “originator” (i.e. the entity requiring securitization financing), which may jeopardize the claims of asset-backed security investors. It is a solution to the risk that security holders with claim to specific assets may end up being subordinated to the interest of preferred creditors and ranked pari passu with, or even lower than, unsecured creditors in a rehabilitation or liquidation proceeding. Under present law, this risk may arise through the “substantive consolidation” and “clawback” provisions of the Financial Rehabilitation and Insolvency Act (FRIA) of 2010. This risk is mitigated through the creation of a bankruptcy remote vehicle and true sale of receivables, and it is the lawyer’s principal role in the securitization process to isolate or ring-fence assets beyond the reach of creditors, and making them an exclusive claim of investors. How this works in theory and practice is the subject of this paper.

Open access

Myroslava Hromovchuk

Abstract

The article reveals the peculiarities of the normative and legal consolidation of the human right to life. The authors pay attention to the provisions of the decisions of the Constitutional Court of Ukraine that carry out the interpretation of the human right to life.

Open access

Dmytry Byelov

Abstract

The article is devoted to coverage features the use of public information in social networks. The author draws attention to the occurrence of criminal responsibility for public expression in social networks.

Open access

Professor Florin Dumiter and Ștefania Jimon

Abstract

The taxation of non - resident economic entities supposes the establishment of an administrative framework as fair, efficient, effective and comprehensible as possible, fact due to the multifaceted nature of the concept of profits generated by an enterprise and which depend on some items as: the foundation of incomes sources, the methods of valuation and collecting taxes, as well as different rules of establishment of some tax thresholds in different situations. Taking into account the legal doctrine, as well as jurisprudence, respectively the national and international tax practices, we can notice the fact that the profits of enterprises are founded, stricto sensu, on tax declarations made by companies. Therefore, we consider very important, in this way, the technical capability of tax administrations regarding the establishment, implementation and coordination of some good practice procedures. In this article, we have tackled the treatment regarding the taxation of non - resident economic entities in Romania. The first part of the paper represents a truth caveat in which is presented and analysed the international and European theoretical framework of legal and tax treatment of non - resident economic entities. The second part of the paper represents a quid pro quo of taxing of non - resident economic entities in Romania, in which are analyzed the taxing stipulations established on national level. The final part of the article is enriched with the presentation and analysis of a particular case regarding the taxation of non - resident economic entities in Romania. The conclusion resulted from this article highlights the fact that Romania had made important steps regarding ―the adjustment‖ of national tax legislation, as well as the permanent improving of tax administration framework in the field of non - resident economic entities taxation in Romania.

Open access

Daniel Berlingher

Abstract

The principle of the free movement of goods in one of great importance for the European Union and for in general and for the Internal Market and the European citizens in particular. Starting from the fact that the Internal market is considered to be a critical element for the present and future prosperity of the European Union in a globalized world, the objective of the present text is to present and analyse, in a concise manner, the main legal provisions that govern this field. In order to accomplish this objective we made reference to the following aspects: considerations regarding the role and importance of the free movement of goods in the European internal market; the role of the European Commission within the internal market and implicitly for the free movement of goods; Treaty provisions governing the free movement of goods; and related instruments of secondary law related to the free movement of goods.

Open access

Narcisa-Mihaela Stoicu, Simeon Murgu and Anca-Florina Moroșteș

Abstract

The Constitutional provisions regulate the Government possibility to undertake the political liability for a program, a general policy statement or a draft law in front of the Parliament. The purpose of Government political liability for its initiative consists in its decision to continue the given mandate of trust only under the term of the approval for the program, the general policy statement or draft law submitted in joint session of the Chamber of Deputies and Senate.

Open access

Ștefan Ioan Lucaciuc

Abstract

The early regression of the fidejussor implies his ability to "turn" against the debtor even before he pays something to the creditor „To turn against“ in the sense of the new Civil Code, does not mean the right to actually receive a payment before the fidejussor has paid, at least in part, the claim of the creditor in whose favor he has guaranteed. The same principle applies in insolvency proceedings where the fidejussor, who has not paid anything yet, may exercise early regression, but his claim against the debtor will be a potential, conditional one, reason for which it will be included in the debt table under suspensive condition, without voting rights.

Open access

Yu ShuHong, Malik Zia-ud-Din, Roy Dilawer Khan and Samra Bilal

Abstract

Legal profession has experienced substantial changes owing to economic needs and evolution of legal industry and market. This has multiplied the need of new breed of competent and well versed lawyers in the global legal profession. The character and calibre of the legal profession is determined by the quality and standard of law faculties and of legal education. The study intends to explore and compare the legal education and admission to practice in China, India and Pakistan. It further expounds the structure, purpose, teaching methods, pathways to admission and problems of legal education in all jurisdictions. The research contemplates on the distinctive features of legal education and its compatibility with practical aspect of legal profession in the selected countries. The study finds that China and Pakistan have a similar structure of mandatory training after graduation which India does not provide for. The study concludes that all jurisdictions must include legal practical course into their curriculum to be able to compete with the global demand.