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Open access

Alex Ansong

Abstract

The prohibition of armed aggression under Article 2(2) of the United Nations Charter is one of the most important developments in international law and international relations in the modern era. The fact that the right to wage war is no longer accepted as falling within the sovereignty of the state has ushered in an appreciably stable international order based on the rule of law and not the rule of might. While states obviously still engage in warfare and numerous wars have been fought by states in the era of the UN, the very fact that the prohibition of armed aggression has assumed universal acceptance as customary international law is a notable achievement. In spite of the prohibition of armed aggression under the UN Charter, self-defence and collective action mandated by the UN Security Council serve as notable exceptions. The US-led invasion of Iraq in 2003 (i.e. Operation Iraqi Freedom) was peculiar because, the justification for the invasion hinged on the enforcement of UN Security Council Resolutions. This justification thus brought to the fore whether, under international law, there was the right to unilaterally enforce Security Council Resolutions. In the current resurgence of unilateralism typified by the US Trumpled withdrawal or threat of withdrawal from multilateral systems of international governance and cooperation, it is important to reiterate the lessons of unilateralism epitomized by the 2003 invasion of Iraq and the instabilities that have become offshoots of this invasion – e.g. the creation of monsters like the so-called Islamic State. This article discusses the resort to unilateralism under the guise of enforcing UN Security Council resolutions. It also engages in a brief discussion on the justifications for war prior to the UN Charter and the provisions on the use of force prescribed in the Charter. It uses the US-led invasion of Iraq in 2003 as a case study to shed light on legality of unilateral enforcement of UN Security Council Resolutions.

Open access

Jelena Jermolajeva, Tatiana Bogdanova and Svetlana Silchenkova

Abstract

The article presents the results of the international study of the professional identity of schoolteachers of Russia and Latvia. In the study, the six component model of the content of the teacher professional identity (TPI) is used. According to this model, in 2017, the questionnaire “School Teacher Professional Identity” was created and international survey organized, in which 437 schoolteachers from Latvia and the Smolensk region of Russia participated. The aim of this article is to analyze the data of the two national samples for the 6th component of TPI: “Professionally Determined Social Behavior”. This behavior is not connected with the implementation of direct professional duties, but corresponds to the philosophy of the profession: taking up the mission of educating community, active involvement in social life, participation in formulation and solution of social problems having pedagogical aspects and unselfish professional help to those who need it. To process the data, statistical methods were used. On the whole, items of the component received relatively high scores in both national samples. Certain differences in the data of Latvian and Russian teachers as well as urban and rural subgroups of both countries are observed. High dispersion of data shown in this component indicates that the professionally determined social behavior is the most acute and controversial aspect of TPI; therefore, the elaboration of optimal ways and tools to strengthen TPI should be based on an in-depth study of social behavior of schoolteachers.

Open access

Daiva Andriušaitienė

Abstract

A country’s qualification structure that meets the needs of the labour market and properly skilled professionals at different levels of qualification are the objectives targeted by each country, region and entity. Competencies demanded on the labour market determine the competitiveness of a person, entity and the whole country. In order to train professionals to better meet the labour market needs, solution formulas for the problems are sought in the field of infrastructure improvements, system management and other areas. This article analyses the opportunities for enhancing match of skills safeguarded by the national occupational standards in Lithuania, including the analysis of progress, problems and solutions.

Open access

Celina Sołek-Borowska and Maja Wilczewska

Abstract

Well-conducted recruitment and selection process is extremely important for the organization, permitting in-depth and objective verification of candidates in terms of meeting employer’s expectations and leads to their employment. Up to now, there has been little research on the impact of e-recruitment on the recruitment process as a whole. The present study fills part of this gap by investigating the effect of e-recruitment on the design of the recruitment process. Therefore, the main purpose of the paper is to analyze how new technology has influenced the recruitment process as a whole. The recruitment process will be presented on the example of ItutorGroup. The paper considers the possibilities of including modern technologies in the recruitment and selection strategies of the organization based on a case study method. The case study describes the project of cooperation of the Work Service personnel consultancy with the international organization ItutorGroup. Its selection and recruitment strategy was based on video-recruitment. The findings indicate that e-recruitment transforms the traditional recruitment process into a time- and space-independent, collaborative hiring process. The most significant changes are recorded in the sequence and increased divisibility of main recruitment tasks. For management, the main task is now that of communicating with candidates. Recruitment and selection strategy based on modern technologies requires an experienced and competent team, two unquestionable benefits are: limiting the length of the process in time and possibility to decrease the costs.

Open access

Daniel Berlingher

Abstract

The present text is dedicated to analysing the situation of Member States’ compliance with EU law in the field of Internal Market because it is one of the most important aspects of the process of European consolidation. In the introductory part we presented the central role of the European Commission because it is the institution that monitors the implementation of the EU law in the national legal order of each Member State. At the centre of our analysis is the 2017 Annual Report of the European Commission. Here we presented in a schematic manner the European norms that the Member States had to implement in their legal order in 2017. We concluded our research by presenting the evolution of this complex process with reference to the data furnished by the Single Market Scoreboard. The situation did not know a significant improvement in the process of Member States’ compliance with EU law. We can see that things evolved but we consider that this evolution could have been better if Member States would have dedicated more attention to this process.

Open access

Russell Stanley Q. Geronimo

Abstract

The interface between securitization law and insolvency law is the central legal concern in designing securitization transactions. The complex structure of these transactions under the Securitization Act of 2004 should be understood within a specific legal context: the possible bankruptcy, insolvency, or liquidation of the “originator” (i.e. the entity requiring securitization financing), which may jeopardize the claims of asset-backed security investors. It is a solution to the risk that security holders with claim to specific assets may end up being subordinated to the interest of preferred creditors and ranked pari passu with, or even lower than, unsecured creditors in a rehabilitation or liquidation proceeding. Under present law, this risk may arise through the “substantive consolidation” and “clawback” provisions of the Financial Rehabilitation and Insolvency Act (FRIA) of 2010. This risk is mitigated through the creation of a bankruptcy remote vehicle and true sale of receivables, and it is the lawyer’s principal role in the securitization process to isolate or ring-fence assets beyond the reach of creditors, and making them an exclusive claim of investors. How this works in theory and practice is the subject of this paper.

Open access

Myroslava Hromovchuk

Abstract

The article reveals the peculiarities of the normative and legal consolidation of the human right to life. The authors pay attention to the provisions of the decisions of the Constitutional Court of Ukraine that carry out the interpretation of the human right to life.

Open access

Dmytry Byelov

Abstract

The article is devoted to coverage features the use of public information in social networks. The author draws attention to the occurrence of criminal responsibility for public expression in social networks.

Open access

Uwe Busbach-Richard and Antje Dietrich

Abstract

In this paper, the design and introduction of a framework for multidisciplinary business simulations at the School of Public Administration of Kehl University will be presented. Within Kehl’s Public Administration study program, various subjects like organization, law, human resources, computer sciences, finance, psychology and economics are supported in an interdisciplinary way. Both theoretical and scientific skills as well as soft skills such as teamwork, project management and coordination will be further developed by using an interdisciplinary approach. A framework for multidisciplinary business simulations has been developed to support this interdisciplinary approach. The framework integrates realistic and practical simulations of interdisciplinary case studies into the study program of Public administration at Kehl University. In order to reduce costs for case study development, the framework offers a generic case study pattern. This pattern was purposefully developed and covers very different disciplines in the best possible way so that the students can conduct simulations that are realistic and possible during their studies. Further, two different simulation implementations of the case studies were designed within the framework for multidisciplinary business simulations. A short-term simulation intends to check the ongoing learning success. A long-term simulation aims for giving students feedback concerning their skills just before graduating. The case studies based on the generic case study pattern come from a wide variety of public administration tasks. Examples of currently conceived case studies include e-invoicing, IT-infrastructure for schools and IT-office workplaces. The case studies were developed together with practitioners from municipalities and local agencies in order to create realistic simulations. This addresses the actual complexity of the future working environment of students. The comprehensive application of knowledge learnt in different subjects motivates students to work on these case studies.

Open access

Viktor Nagy

Abstract

In this paper, the results of my research are presented that was carried out on a large sample to investigate how people look back at their previous business decisions. After a short literature overview, considering the role of time, the paper deals with the primary research: how people judge their decisions in the short term and in the long run, that is, how confident they are that the right one was chosen applying the available knowledge of facts and conditions connected with or relevant to their situation. Using statistical methods, comparisons were made, for example, based on the respondents’ gender, so it turns out whether gender has an influence on self-confidence or on exactness of judgement. Does the position, that is, the rank matter? Can it be assumed that the farther one gets up the corporate ladder, the more certainty can be observed about their decisions? And what about educational level? Does it influence judgement in a decision? Those who do not regret their decisions after a while, that is, after the original decisions were made, while being in possession of the information available later, can be more successful in business because they made the best decision. Trying to identify such characteristics or factors can be an advantage in the business life.