The study was conducted to determine the antioxidant and anti-diabetic properties of bee pollen. The phenol content of extracts was 1.43, 2.04, 2.10 and 1.79 mg gallic acid g-1, respectively. Total flavonoid content was 0.78, 1.39, 0.86 and 0.79 mg gallic acid g-1 respectively. Bee pollen extracts have the potential to scavenge free radicals and lower blood glucose due to the presence of phenols and flavonoids. The aqueous-ethanol extract had the lowest IC50 for HRS and TAC, 0.53mg/mL and 0.25mg/mL respectively, which depicts that this extract alleviates the destructive effect of hydroxyl radicals. Methanol extract had the lowest IC50 0.21 mg/Ml) for DPPH inhibition, hence it was able to scavenge the DPPH radicals. Ethanol extract had the lowest IC50 (0.04 mg/mL) for 2, 2-azino-bis (3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulfonic acid inhibition, hence it can protect living cells from ABTS cations. The aqueous-ethanol extract displayed higher inhibition of α-amylase (4.51 mg/mL) while the aqueous extract exhibited a higher inhibition of α-glucosidase (0.60 mg/mL), which slows down the breakdown of disaccharides and reduces sugar buildup in the bloodstream. Bee pollen has potential antioxidative and anti-diabetic activity.
An increasingly amount of evidence supports that the evolution of eusociality is accompanies by shifts in ancient molecular and physiological pathways. The juvenile hormone, one of the most important hormones in the post-embryonic development of insects, attracts the most attention in the context of social organization. Allatoregulatory neuropeptides (Allatotropin, Allatostatin-A and Allatostatin-C) are known to regulate juvenile hormone synthesis and release in insects. In order to clarify the transitions of juvenile hormone synthesis involved in eusocial evolution, the substitutions of amino acid residues and the complexity of post-translational modifications in allatoregulatory neuro-peptide receptors were characterized. Both allatotropin and allatostatin receptors are identified in all examined bee species regardless if they are solitary or eusocial. Although the amino acid sequences are highly conserved, phylogenetic results are consistent with the eusocial status. The abundance of predicted post-translational modifications correlates with social complexity except for that in allatostatin-C receptors. Even though the consequences of these specific amino acid substitutions and various post-translational modification complexity have not been studied, they likely contribute to the localizing, binding and coupling characteristics of the receptor groups.
Zhe Wu, Zhizhong Xue, Haishan Li, Xiaodong Zhang, Xiuping Wang and Xuelin Lu
Dandelion (Taraxacum spp.) is a widely distributed weed; in China, however, dandelion has been considered to be a kind of medicinal and edible vegetable in recent years. This transition from weed to vegetable requires corresponding cultivation and management. Thus, the production of dandelion on saline land was conducted based on the evaluation of dandelion salt tolerance. Low soil salt content (< 0.3%) did not significantly affect dandelion growth, and the salt tolerance threshold of dandelion ranged from 0.4% to 0.43% according to the correlation between salt content and morphological and physiological parameters, which was for guiding the preparation of saline land for dandelion field cultivation. Different fertilizer treatments significantly affected the leaf yield of dandelion, and the maximum fresh leaf yield of ~10.5 t ha−1 was obtained when urea was applied in batches at a ratio of 2:2:1 in the sowing, seedling and flowering stages, respectively. This research provided the theoretical and technical support for the cultivation on saline land, laying the foundation for further study of quality control for the cultivation of dandelion on saline land.
Nineteen samples of honey were collected from different localities of the Borana Zone and examined to identify the botanical origin of honey through honey pollen analysis. From nineteen honey samples, sixteen were identified as monofloral honeys. Twenty-eight plant species were identified as honey source plants and the identified plant species belonged to fourteen plant families. Out of twenty-eight bee plant species, 17.9% of them were found in the Fabaceae family followed by Asteraceae and Lamiaceae, each of them accounting for 14.3% of all honey plants species found in the samples. The Shannon-Wiener diversity index (H) showed that high diversity of plant species was found in eleven honey samples with a range of 1.07 (Bule Hora site 1) to 1.81 (Yabello site 2) on the basis of honey pollen analysis. Eight honey samples had lower diversity index values, ranging from 0 (Arero site 2 and Bule Hora site 3) to 0.84 (Gelana site1), which suggests the honey was obtained from a few dominant plant species. Accordingly, Guizotia scabra, Haplocoelum foliolosum, Plectranthus assurgens, Terminalia brownii, Sesamum indicum, Satureja paradoxa, Croton macrostachyus and Acacia brevispica were the major monofloral honeys produced from the area. This indicates that there is a huge potential for the production of monofloral honey. Since monofloral honey has a good market value and is preferred by consumers, the involvement of investors is recommended.
Aneta Brodziak, Jolanta Król, Joanna Barłowska, Zygmunt Litwińczuk, Anna Teter and Monika Kędzierska-Matysek
Aim of the study was to compare the content of selected bioactive whey proteins and lipophilic vitamins, which largely determine the bioactive status of milk, in milk obtained from local breeds of cows raised in Poland (Polish Red, White-Backed and Simmental) and Polish Holstein-Friesian cows. Basic chemical composition and content of selected bioactive compounds (β-lactoglobulin, α-lactalbumin, lactoferrin, bovine serum albumin, and vitamins: E, A, D3 and β-carotene) in 550 milk samples were analysed. The milk produced by local breeds proved to be a more valuable source of whey proteins and lipophilic vitamins than that of the Polish Holstein-Friesians. It was distinguished by its content of all bioactive compounds, including those with antioxidant properties, i.e. vitamins E, A and D3 and β-lactoglobulin, and antimicrobial properties, mainly lactoferrin. Therefore, the milk of cows of local breeds should be considered a valuable material for processing, especially at the level of the farm or small local processing plant, to produce products that are richer in health-promoting compounds. The promotion of milk from local breeds can therefore be an opportunity for the farms that raise them.
Seyed Pejman Hosseini Shekarabi, Amir Hossein Omidi, Mahmoud A.O. Dawood, Milad Adel, Amin Avazeh and Fatemeh Heidari
The degree of flesh pigmentation is one of the most important quality criteria dictating the fish market value. It is well-know that fish, like other animals, cannot synthesize their own coloring pigments de novo, and must obtain these pigments from their diet. In this study, four levels of black mulberry (Morus nigra) juice powder (BMP) as a natural pigment source were incorporated into a basal diet at concentrations of 0, 0.25, 0.5, and 0.75 % and fed to rainbow trout weighing 100±5 g for 8 weeks in triplicate. At the end of the feeding trial, the effect of BMP on growth performance, blood biochemical parameters and fillet color was examined. Fish fed BMP showed significant enhancements in weight gain (WG), specific growth (SGR), food conversion ratio (FCR), and survival rates (SR) (P<0.05). SGR, WG and SR values were increased significantly following dietary supplementation with BMP in a dose dependent manner with the highest values in fish fed 0.75 %, while the FCR was decreased (P<0.05). Body crude protein, lipid, and moisture contents were increased significantly in fish fed BMP (P<0.05). Dietary BMP has significantly decreased the levels of blood ALT, AST, and glucose (P>0.05). While the blood carotenoid concentration was increased in fish fed 0.5 % BMP compare to other treated groups. Fish fed BMP showed increased fillet yellowness (b*) and redness (a*), while the fillet lightness (L*) was decreased when compared to the control (P<0.05). In conclusion, diets supplemented with BMP increased the growth performance, muscle pigmentation, and health status of rainbow trout.
This experiment was conducted to establish the effects of two types of microalgae [Chlorella vulgaris (AI), C. variabilis (AII) and their combination (AI+AII)] with two substrates (wheat and corn silages) on rumen fermentation, gas and methane production. To each substrate, one of 3 algae treatment was supplemented at 0% and 25% of the total incubated dry matter. A series of 5 measurement points (3, 6, 12, 24 and 48 h) were completed and the gas production was monitored. The proximate and mineral composition of microalgae and substrates were examined. At 48 h incubation rumen fermentation variables and CH4 production were also assessed. When compared with wheat silage, corn silage caused an increase in gas production (P<0.05). Ruminal gas production decreased in the algae groups when compared to the controls (0% algae, wheat and corn silages, P<0.05). Among algaes, C. vulgaris had the strongest effect, decreasing gas production by 34%. Among algaes, the total volatile fatty acids (VFA) and CH4 production were found to be lower in C. variabilis (P<0.001). Ammonia-N increased with the algae inclusion (P<0.05). But, the ruminal gas production, pH, acetate, the total VFA, CH4 and rumen fermentation efficiency were not affected by the substrate and algae interaction (P>0.05). The propionate was the highest (P<0.05) for corn silage when incubated with C. vulgaris. Ruminal butyrate was the lowest for the wheat silage when incubated with the mixture of algaes (P<0.05). The NH3-N was the highest in corn silage when incubated with all algae types (P<0.05). Careful selection and combination of substrate and algae may positively manipulate rumen fermentation and may inhibit CH4 production. Further research is needed to validate these results in vivo.
In this study, the effect of trichostatin A (TSA)-mediated epigenomic modulation of nuclear donor cells on the in vitro developmental potential of caprine somatic cell cloned embryos was examined. The enucleated ex vivo-matured oocytes were subzonally injected with adult ear skin-derived fibroblast cells exposed or not exposed to TSA (at a concentration of 50 nM). The experiment was designed on the basis of three different approaches to TSA-dependent modulation of donor cell-descended genome: before being used for somatic cell nuclear transfer/SCNT (Group I); immediately after activation of nuclear-transferred (NT) oocytes (Group II); or combined treatment both before being used for SCNT and after activation of NT oocytes (Group III). In the control Group IV, donor cell nuclei have not been treated with TSA at any stage of the experimental design. In TSA-treated Groups I and II and untreated Group IV, cleavage activities of cloned embryos were at the similar levels (80.6%, 79.8% and 77.1%), respectively. But, significant difference was observed between Groups III and IV (85.3 vs. 77.1%). Moreover, in the experimental Groups I and III, the percentages of cloned embryos that reached the blastocyst stages remarkably increased as compared to those noticed in the control Group IV (31.2% vs. 36.7% vs. 18.9%), respectively. In turn, among embryos assigned to Group II, blastocyst formation rate was only slightly higher than that in the control Group IV, but the differences were not statistically significant (25.8% vs. 18.9%). To sum up, TSA-based epigenomic modulation of somatic cell-inherited nuclear genome gave rise to increased competences of caprine cloned embryos to complete their development to blastocyst stages. In particular, sequential TSA-mediated modulation of both nuclear donor cells and activated NT oocytes led to improvement in the blastocyst yields of cloned goat embryos, which can result from enhanced donor cell nuclear reprogrammability.
Bartosz Kierończyk, Jędrzej Sypniewski, Mateusz Rawski, Wojciech Czekała, Sylwester Świątkiewicz and Damian Józefiak
In the present study, the complete cycle of the preconsumer waste transition by black soldier fly larvae (BSFL) into sustainable raw material (dietary fat) for broiler chickens was examined. In two individual experiments, the effect of selected rearing medium made from various preconsumer wastes on the nutritive value and performance of BSFL were tested (1st trial). In the second experiment, partial (25, 50, or 75%) or total replacement of soybean oil fed to broiler chickens by BSFL fat obtained via supercritical CO2 extraction from larvae from the 1st experiment was conducted. In the performance trial on birds, nutrient digestibility, selected gastrointestinal tract (GIT) segments, internal organ traits, and welfare status were also measured. In the first trial, 1-day-old BSFL were allotted to 5 treatments (8 replicates each). The following substrates were tested, i.e., wheat bran, carrots, cabbage, potatoes, and a mixture of the previously mentioned organic food wastes (equal ratio of each). In the second experiment, a total of 960 day-old female Ross 308 chicks were randomly assigned to 5 dietary treatments (16 replicates and 12 birds per replicate). The following groups were applied: SO – 100% soybean oil, HI25 – a mixture containing 25% BSFL fat and 75% SO, HI50 – addition of BSFL and SO in a 50:50 ratio, HI75 – a mixture containing 75% BSFL fat and 25% SO, and HI100 – 100% BSFL fat. The results of the present study showed high variability in the chemical composition of insects among groups (410 vs. 550 g kg−1 CP; 60 vs. 170 g kg−1 EE), as well as a significant influence of rearing substrate composition on BSFL performance, i.e., the average mass of 100 randomly chosen larvae (P < 0.001), waste reduction rate (P < 0.001), and conversion rate (P = 0.008). Moreover, the partial or total replacement of SO by BSFL fat did not affect (P > 0.05) the growth performance, coefficients of apparent ileal digestibility of nutrients, selected organ weights and length, or the welfare status of the broilers. In conclusion, it is possible to obtain an environmentally friendly, sustainable energy source from BSFL biomass and implement it in broiler diets without a negative effect on the birds’ production.
Inbreeding was analyzed in a population of 14,144 Polish Black-and-White Holstein-Friesian (PBWHF) young bulls born between 1994 and 2017 and bred under both conventional and genomic breeding programmes. The inbreeding coefficients were computed using a model with genetic groups, according to the algorithm given by VanRaden. It was found that in the analyzed population all bulls are inbred (100% of the population), with the mean coefficient of inbreeding ranging from 0.09% to 26.95%. Pedigree analysis also showed a relationship between the changing number of bulls over the years and the dynamics of population inbreeding. These trends are connected with changes in the breeding scheme, related to the implementation of genomic selection in the breeding programme for PBWHF cattle in 2014. The increasing number of weaned young bulls in Poland was paralleled by a fairly consistent increase in the mean inbreeding, but the inbreeding dynamics were relatively small. A reverse trend was observed in the group of young bulls born after 2013. As the number of bulls very rapidly decreased in successive birth years, the mean inbreeding for successive birth-year groups very rapidly increased. As a result, the estimated linear trend was equal to 0.02% inbreeding per year of birth in the group of bulls raised before genomic selection (~20 birth-year) whereas in the group bulls raised after genomic selection (~4 birth-year) the trend was much higher and amounted to 0.56% inbreeding per year of birth. The high mean inbreeding found in the group of the genomically selected young bulls may translate into higher inbreeding in the whole population of PBWHF cattle, because these bulls are now intensively used as sires. The results of our study also show that the implementation of genomic selection in the breeding programme caused a very rapid increase in the inbreeding rate per birth-year in young bulls.