Aneta Brodziak, Jolanta Król, Joanna Barłowska, Zygmunt Litwińczuk, Anna Teter and Monika Kędzierska-Matysek
Aim of the study was to compare the content of selected bioactive whey proteins and lipophilic vitamins, which largely determine the bioactive status of milk, in milk obtained from local breeds of cows raised in Poland (Polish Red, White-Backed and Simmental) and Polish Holstein-Friesian cows. Basic chemical composition and content of selected bioactive compounds (β-lactoglobulin, α-lactalbumin, lactoferrin, bovine serum albumin, and vitamins: E, A, D3 and β-carotene) in 550 milk samples were analysed. The milk produced by local breeds proved to be a more valuable source of whey proteins and lipophilic vitamins than that of the Polish Holstein-Friesians. It was distinguished by its content of all bioactive compounds, including those with antioxidant properties, i.e. vitamins E, A and D3 and β-lactoglobulin, and antimicrobial properties, mainly lactoferrin. Therefore, the milk of cows of local breeds should be considered a valuable material for processing, especially at the level of the farm or small local processing plant, to produce products that are richer in health-promoting compounds. The promotion of milk from local breeds can therefore be an opportunity for the farms that raise them.
Seyed Pejman Hosseini Shekarabi, Amir Hossein Omidi, Mahmoud A.O. Dawood, Milad Adel, Amin Avazeh and Fatemeh Heidari
The degree of flesh pigmentation is one of the most important quality criteria dictating the fish market value. It is well-know that fish, like other animals, cannot synthesize their own coloring pigments de novo, and must obtain these pigments from their diet. In this study, four levels of black mulberry (Morus nigra) juice powder (BMP) as a natural pigment source were incorporated into a basal diet at concentrations of 0, 0.25, 0.5, and 0.75 % and fed to rainbow trout weighing 100±5 g for 8 weeks in triplicate. At the end of the feeding trial, the effect of BMP on growth performance, blood biochemical parameters and fillet color was examined. Fish fed BMP showed significant enhancements in weight gain (WG), specific growth (SGR), food conversion ratio (FCR), and survival rates (SR) (P<0.05). SGR, WG and SR values were increased significantly following dietary supplementation with BMP in a dose dependent manner with the highest values in fish fed 0.75 %, while the FCR was decreased (P<0.05). Body crude protein, lipid, and moisture contents were increased significantly in fish fed BMP (P<0.05). Dietary BMP has significantly decreased the levels of blood ALT, AST, and glucose (P>0.05). While the blood carotenoid concentration was increased in fish fed 0.5 % BMP compare to other treated groups. Fish fed BMP showed increased fillet yellowness (b*) and redness (a*), while the fillet lightness (L*) was decreased when compared to the control (P<0.05). In conclusion, diets supplemented with BMP increased the growth performance, muscle pigmentation, and health status of rainbow trout.
This experiment was conducted to establish the effects of two types of microalgae [Chlorella vulgaris (AI), C. variabilis (AII) and their combination (AI+AII)] with two substrates (wheat and corn silages) on rumen fermentation, gas and methane production. To each substrate, one of 3 algae treatment was supplemented at 0% and 25% of the total incubated dry matter. A series of 5 measurement points (3, 6, 12, 24 and 48 h) were completed and the gas production was monitored. The proximate and mineral composition of microalgae and substrates were examined. At 48 h incubation rumen fermentation variables and CH4 production were also assessed. When compared with wheat silage, corn silage caused an increase in gas production (P<0.05). Ruminal gas production decreased in the algae groups when compared to the controls (0% algae, wheat and corn silages, P<0.05). Among algaes, C. vulgaris had the strongest effect, decreasing gas production by 34%. Among algaes, the total volatile fatty acids (VFA) and CH4 production were found to be lower in C. variabilis (P<0.001). Ammonia-N increased with the algae inclusion (P<0.05). But, the ruminal gas production, pH, acetate, the total VFA, CH4 and rumen fermentation efficiency were not affected by the substrate and algae interaction (P>0.05). The propionate was the highest (P<0.05) for corn silage when incubated with C. vulgaris. Ruminal butyrate was the lowest for the wheat silage when incubated with the mixture of algaes (P<0.05). The NH3-N was the highest in corn silage when incubated with all algae types (P<0.05). Careful selection and combination of substrate and algae may positively manipulate rumen fermentation and may inhibit CH4 production. Further research is needed to validate these results in vivo.
In this study, the effect of trichostatin A (TSA)-mediated epigenomic modulation of nuclear donor cells on the in vitro developmental potential of caprine somatic cell cloned embryos was examined. The enucleated ex vivo-matured oocytes were subzonally injected with adult ear skin-derived fibroblast cells exposed or not exposed to TSA (at a concentration of 50 nM). The experiment was designed on the basis of three different approaches to TSA-dependent modulation of donor cell-descended genome: before being used for somatic cell nuclear transfer/SCNT (Group I); immediately after activation of nuclear-transferred (NT) oocytes (Group II); or combined treatment both before being used for SCNT and after activation of NT oocytes (Group III). In the control Group IV, donor cell nuclei have not been treated with TSA at any stage of the experimental design. In TSA-treated Groups I and II and untreated Group IV, cleavage activities of cloned embryos were at the similar levels (80.6%, 79.8% and 77.1%), respectively. But, significant difference was observed between Groups III and IV (85.3 vs. 77.1%). Moreover, in the experimental Groups I and III, the percentages of cloned embryos that reached the blastocyst stages remarkably increased as compared to those noticed in the control Group IV (31.2% vs. 36.7% vs. 18.9%), respectively. In turn, among embryos assigned to Group II, blastocyst formation rate was only slightly higher than that in the control Group IV, but the differences were not statistically significant (25.8% vs. 18.9%). To sum up, TSA-based epigenomic modulation of somatic cell-inherited nuclear genome gave rise to increased competences of caprine cloned embryos to complete their development to blastocyst stages. In particular, sequential TSA-mediated modulation of both nuclear donor cells and activated NT oocytes led to improvement in the blastocyst yields of cloned goat embryos, which can result from enhanced donor cell nuclear reprogrammability.
Bartosz Kierończyk, Jędrzej Sypniewski, Mateusz Rawski, Wojciech Czekała, Sylwester Świątkiewicz and Damian Józefiak
In the present study, the complete cycle of the preconsumer waste transition by black soldier fly larvae (BSFL) into sustainable raw material (dietary fat) for broiler chickens was examined. In two individual experiments, the effect of selected rearing medium made from various preconsumer wastes on the nutritive value and performance of BSFL were tested (1st trial). In the second experiment, partial (25, 50, or 75%) or total replacement of soybean oil fed to broiler chickens by BSFL fat obtained via supercritical CO2 extraction from larvae from the 1st experiment was conducted. In the performance trial on birds, nutrient digestibility, selected gastrointestinal tract (GIT) segments, internal organ traits, and welfare status were also measured. In the first trial, 1-day-old BSFL were allotted to 5 treatments (8 replicates each). The following substrates were tested, i.e., wheat bran, carrots, cabbage, potatoes, and a mixture of the previously mentioned organic food wastes (equal ratio of each). In the second experiment, a total of 960 day-old female Ross 308 chicks were randomly assigned to 5 dietary treatments (16 replicates and 12 birds per replicate). The following groups were applied: SO – 100% soybean oil, HI25 – a mixture containing 25% BSFL fat and 75% SO, HI50 – addition of BSFL and SO in a 50:50 ratio, HI75 – a mixture containing 75% BSFL fat and 25% SO, and HI100 – 100% BSFL fat. The results of the present study showed high variability in the chemical composition of insects among groups (410 vs. 550 g kg−1 CP; 60 vs. 170 g kg−1 EE), as well as a significant influence of rearing substrate composition on BSFL performance, i.e., the average mass of 100 randomly chosen larvae (P < 0.001), waste reduction rate (P < 0.001), and conversion rate (P = 0.008). Moreover, the partial or total replacement of SO by BSFL fat did not affect (P > 0.05) the growth performance, coefficients of apparent ileal digestibility of nutrients, selected organ weights and length, or the welfare status of the broilers. In conclusion, it is possible to obtain an environmentally friendly, sustainable energy source from BSFL biomass and implement it in broiler diets without a negative effect on the birds’ production.
Inbreeding was analyzed in a population of 14,144 Polish Black-and-White Holstein-Friesian (PBWHF) young bulls born between 1994 and 2017 and bred under both conventional and genomic breeding programmes. The inbreeding coefficients were computed using a model with genetic groups, according to the algorithm given by VanRaden. It was found that in the analyzed population all bulls are inbred (100% of the population), with the mean coefficient of inbreeding ranging from 0.09% to 26.95%. Pedigree analysis also showed a relationship between the changing number of bulls over the years and the dynamics of population inbreeding. These trends are connected with changes in the breeding scheme, related to the implementation of genomic selection in the breeding programme for PBWHF cattle in 2014. The increasing number of weaned young bulls in Poland was paralleled by a fairly consistent increase in the mean inbreeding, but the inbreeding dynamics were relatively small. A reverse trend was observed in the group of young bulls born after 2013. As the number of bulls very rapidly decreased in successive birth years, the mean inbreeding for successive birth-year groups very rapidly increased. As a result, the estimated linear trend was equal to 0.02% inbreeding per year of birth in the group of bulls raised before genomic selection (~20 birth-year) whereas in the group bulls raised after genomic selection (~4 birth-year) the trend was much higher and amounted to 0.56% inbreeding per year of birth. The high mean inbreeding found in the group of the genomically selected young bulls may translate into higher inbreeding in the whole population of PBWHF cattle, because these bulls are now intensively used as sires. The results of our study also show that the implementation of genomic selection in the breeding programme caused a very rapid increase in the inbreeding rate per birth-year in young bulls.
Fernando Gálvez, Rubén Domínguez, Aristide Maggiolino, Mirian Pateiro, Javier Carballo, Pasquale De Palo, Francisco J. Barba and José M. Lorenzo
Meat is an important part of the human diet since provides several nutrients. However, the amount of these nutrients can differ according to several factors. With this in mind, the present research was designed with the main objective of evaluating the effect of production system of broiler (industrial, range and organic) on meat quality. The physicochemical, chemical and nutritional characteristics were determined in breast and drumstick meat. The organic chickens presented the lowest amounts of fat and cholesterol and the highest amounts of protein. The colour was also influenced by the production system, where organic and range chickens had the highest values of redness in both cuts (breast and drumstick). In addition, the content of essential fatty acids (C18:2n-6 and C18:3n-3) and other fatty acids with high biological importance such eicosapentanoic acid (EPA; C20:5n-3), docosapentanoic acid (DPA; C22:5n-3) and docosahexanoic acid (DHA; C22:6n-3) were higher in organic samples compared to industrial or range chickens. The amino acids content did not vary with the production system. Regard to mineral contents, organic chickens had the highest values of iron in drumstick and significant lower values of magnesium in both cuts than industrial chickens. On the whole, the meat of the organic chickens showed better nutritional characteristics than those produced in range or industrial conditions.
This study evaluated myosin heavy chain composition and the effect of aging time (45 min, 24 h, and 96 h) on meat quality parameters and dystrophin and integrin degradation pattern in longissimus thoracis and psoas major muscles of 24 Polish Landrace fatteners slaughtered at 100 kg body weight. It was found that m. longissimus thoracis had a greater percentage of MyHC-IIB (P≤0.05) and a significantly lower percentage of type I and IIA/IIX (P≤0.05) compared with the m. psoas major. Moreover, psoas major muscle had significantly higher (P≤0.05) pH45, pH24 and lower drip loss values for 45 min to 24 h, 45 min to 96 h and 45 min to 168 h than m. longissimus thoracis. Muscle type also had a significant effect on the rate of dystrophin and integrin degradation postmortem, which were significantly (P≤0.05) more rapidly degraded in the m. longissimus thoracis compared to the m. psoas major. It is concluded from the obtained results that the muscles with a greater percentage of MyHC-IIB show lower pH values, which translates into more rapid rate of integrin and dystrophin degradation. Ultimately, this may contribute to higher drip loss values during refrigerated storage.
Snežana Ivanović, Boris Pisinov, Marija Pavlović and Ivan Pavlović
Deer meat is a high quality and valuable food for human consumption. It has high nutritive value because of its high protein and heme iron content, and low levels of fats and saturated fatty acids. The aim of this study was to examine the quality parameters of meat from fallow deer and roe deer that were hunted in Serbia. Parameters studied were live weight, carcass weight, chemical composition of meat, color, fatty acid content of meat, volatile compounds, and sensory characteristics. The results obtained show no significant difference in the chemical composition of these two species of deer meat, but there were differences regarding fatty acid content, volatile compounds, color and sensory properties of meat. The ratios of polyunsaturated to saturated fatty acids in the deer meat ranged from 0.387 to 0.556. The results suggest that deer species has a significant impact on the fatty acid profile and content of volatile compounds of deer meat.
Quan Zhang, YiKang Luo, BoHai Zhang, YanZi Chan, LinLin Huang, Yin Wang, JiaMing Liang and XiQuan Zhang
The yellow-feather broiler is a popular poultry breed in Asia, particularly in China. In this study, we performed RNA-seq analysis to identify differentially expressed genes (DEGs) in the liver of yellow-feather broilers that had been subjected to acute heat stress treatment (38 ± 1°C for 4 h, recovery 2 h) and determine the response of the liver to high temperature and its effects on yellow-feather broiler physiology. We found that the cloacal temperature and respiratory rate of yellow-feather chickens were significantly increased immediately after the initiation of acute heat stress (38°C) treatment. And after recovery for 2h, there was no difference in the cloacal temperature and respiratory rate between the acute heat stress and control groups. A total of 834 DEGs were observed in response to heat stress by RNA-seq. Almost half of the DEGs were involved in the lipid and energy metabolism, including fatty acid metabolism (ACOX1, ACACA, ACSL1, ACSL6, ACAA1, ACAA2, HADHB, and FASN) and propanoate metabolism (ACSS2, ALDH2, ACACA, DLAT, ALDH7A1, MDH1, ME1, ABAT, SUCLG2, and ACSS3). Our findings provide the context for RNA-seq studies in the liver of yellow-feather chickens and suggests that the liver of yellow-feather broilers has the lipid and energy metabolism physiological mechanisms activated in response to heat stress.