Hasan Al-Mosawe, Nick Thom, Gordon Airey and Amjad Al-Bayati
Aggregate gradation plays an important role in the behaviour of asphalt mixtures. Packing of aggregate is a very important factor that will be affected by changing the aggregate gradation. Many researchers have investigated different ways of describing packing both theoretically and practically. Bailey ratios have recently been used to understand the volumetric properties of mixtures. In this paper, the Bailey ratios have been used, and two further ratios have also been introduced to allow the asphalt mixture gradation to be fully understood. Thirteen different aggregate gradations have been chosen within the 14 mm asphalt concrete specification to investigate the effect of particle size distribution on the stiffness of the mixture. It was found that variation in aggregate gradation has a significant effect on asphalt stiffness, even within specification limits, and a reasonable correlation between the set of ratios investigated and the Indirect Tensile Stiffness.
Swati Roy Maitra, K. S. Reddy and L. S. Ramachandra
In the analysis of jointed concrete pavement, it is necessary to appropriately model certain aspects of the pavement for accurate estimation of its structural responses. These include load transfer at joints (doweled and aggregate interlocked) and interface condition between slab and foundation. This paper presents a backcalculation method for estimating the joint parameters, both transverse and longitudinal, and the interface parameter along with the pavement layer moduli by using the results of structural evaluation of an in-service concrete pavement. The details of the structural evaluation using Falling Weight Deflectometer (FWD) and the two-stage backcalculation procedure using a three-dimensional finite element (FE) model for jointed concrete pavement are discussed. Modulus of dowel support and modulus of interlocking joints are the transverse and longitudinal joint parameters respectively and the coefficient of friction between concrete slab and foundation is the interface parameter considered for the analysis. These parameters are the useful inputs in modeling jointed concrete pavement using finite element method.
In March 2006, a hot in-place recycling (HIR) technique was employed for the first time on Lahore-Islamabad Motorway (M-2) to rehabilitate sections where the rut depth was about 40 mm. Since HIR technology was new to Pakistan, research was carried out to study the effects of recycled wearing course on overall pavement performance. This was accomplished by comparing structural adequacy of pavement and material characterization before and after recycling. Laboratory investigations included hot mix asphalt (HMA) volumeteric analysis, aggregate gradation analysis, extracted asphalt properties (penetration test and dynamic shear rheometer (DSR)) and resilient modulus. Analysis of recycled HMA wearing course indicated a reduction in modulus for a mix which was stiff and aged prior to recycling. Relative degradation of the aggregates in HMA wearing course, before and after recycling, was observed; however, it remained close to National Highway Authority (NHA) standard specifications. The research enhanced awareness of HIR among local engineers and contractors.
This paper presents the results of a review on variability of key pavement design input variables (asphalt modulus and thickness, subgrade modulus) and assesses effects on pavement performance (fatigue and deformation life). Variability is described by statistical terms such as mean and standard deviation and by its probability density distribution.
The subject of reliability in pavement design has pushed many highway organisations around the world to review their design methodologies, mainly empirical, to move towards mechanistic-empirical analysis and design which provide the tools for the designer to evaluate the effect of variations in materials on pavement performance. This research has reinforced this need for understanding how the variability of design parameters affects the pavement performance.
This study has only considered flexible pavements. The sites considered for the analysis, all in the UK (including Northern Ireland), were mainly motorways or major trunk roads. Pavement survey data analysed were for Lane 1, the most heavily trafficked lane. Sections 1km long were considered wherever possible.
Statistical characterisation of the variation of layer thickness, asphalt stiffness and subgrade stiffness is addressed. A sensitivity analysis is then carried out to assess which parameter(s) have the greater influence on the pavement life.
The research shows that, combining the effect of all the parameters considered, the maximum range of 15th and 85th percentiles (as percentages of the mean) was found to be 64% to 558% for the fatigue life and 94% to 808% for the deformation life.
The rutting of flexible pavements during their exploitation is considered to be one of the main problems in UK as well as worldwide. It is a serious mode of distress alongside fatigue in bituminous pavements that may lead to premature failure, as indicated by permanent deformation or rut depth along the wheel load path, and results in early and costly rehabilitation. This kind of pavement distress makes a negative impact to the serviceability characteristics of the flexible pavement, to the residual life of pavement structure and also to the safety and ride quality for traffic. Two design methods have been used to control rutting: one to limit the vertical compressive strain on the top of subgrade and the other to limit rutting to a tolerable amount usually around “12 mm”. Although experimental data and practical experience have been introduced into these design methods through empirical parameters, there is not a simple relationship between the elastic strain and the long-term plastic behaviour of pavement materials. This paper describes a method based on the kinematic shakedown theorem for constructing a mathematical model to predict the long-term behaviour of pavement structures under the action of repeated and cyclic loadings imposed by moving traffic. This method seeks the mechanism from within a class of mechanisms that minimises the shakedown limit load for pavement structures consisting of layers of Mohr-Coulomb materials. The model differs from extant models, in that the cyclic nature of the loading on a pavement is recognised from the outset, and the current method which is based upon foundation analysis, is replaced by a procedure employing shakedown theory that features the capabilities and applications of the developed technique for assessing rutting in flexible pavements. The basic concepts are outlined together with the most recent calculations of the critical design shakedown load. The influence of the design parameters such as, the strength, stiffness and depth of the granular base-course material as well as the consequences of traffic loading (number of equivalent standard axel loads – ESAL’s) are discussed.
Preservation of the appropriate quality of road assets needs timely rehabilitation of high-level design and construction. Since the actual life cycles of Hungarian road rehabilitation projects are often much lower than expected, research activities of the authors were concentrated on the development of an updated design technology of road pavement rehabilitation using scientifically based algorithms. The paper outlines the elements of a pavement rehabilitation design based on Hungarian and foreign literature survey, detailed own laboratory test series and trial section monitoring. The main steps of the design methodology comprise the Client’s data supply and disposition, site condition evaluation by the designer, deflection measurement in carefully selected points, eventual additional laboratory tests, choosing design subsections, correction of the equivalent thickness of the new asphalt layer, calculation of strain in wearing course. Besides, relationships are presented between various condition parameter data like bearing capacity values, unevenness measuring data and rut depth values. The pavement rehabilitation design technique suggested here – if widely in Hungary – can significantly contribute to attaining a much longer life cycle of rehabilitated roads than by now, and it is (would be) extremely efficient due to the very limited funds available for highway purposes.
The Defence Infrastructure Organisation requested a pavement evaluation on RAF Waddington and the results indicated that runway rehabilitation and reprofiling was needed in order to meet the physical design requirements set out in the Manual of Aerodrome Design & Safeguarding. The presence of tar in a layer of the old pavement promoted the option of cold recycling this material into the new structure. This paper presents the results from a laboratory investigation into the suitability of cold recycled foamed bitumen asphalt to be used in the structural layers of an airfield pavement.
Laboratory mixture designs with foamed bitumen, incorporating asphalt planings from RAF Waddington runway, were produced in URS Infrastructure and Environment Ltd. laboratory. Specimens were used to assess mix performance and in order to add confidence to the design. The last objective of the research was to demonstrate that asphalt planings from RAF Waddington could be recycled into foamed asphalt for incorporation in the runway rehabilitation works. The optimum binder content was determined from Indirect Tensile Stiffness Modulus tests and Indirect Tensile Strength tests, concluding that the optimum binder content was 3.3% by mass. As a common practice in the UK, up to 1.5% by mass of cement was added to the mixture to improve early life performance. To assess the foamed bitumen samples’ performance with time, specimens were prepared and cured for 28, 180 and 360 days at different temperatures. Post curing, the specimens were tested for a range of performance criteria including fatigue, stiffness and durability.
The study found that asphalt sampled from the runway at RAF Waddington can be recycled into foamed asphalt, meeting the requirements of Defence Infrastructure Organisation Specification 050.
Pavel Coufalík, Ondřej Dašek, Jiří Kachtík, Jan Kudrna and Svatopluk Stoklásek
The Asphalt pavements in Central and Eastern Europe have to be resistant to high and very low temperatures and climatic changes. Especially emphasize influence of low temperatures seems to be critical parameter. That is why the modified bitumens with low temperature susceptibility and with high resistance to low temperature cracking are searched for. Dynamic Shear Rheometer (DSR) can be used as a quick method that can evaluate the modification system of bituminous binders. The advantage of DSR testing is also related to possibility of comparison of unaged and aged bitumen.
The relaxations of shear stress of several asphalt rubber binders (containing 11 %, 13 %, 15 % and 17 % of crumb rubber) and paving bitumen were determined in DSR at the temperature of 0 °C and −10 °C. Relaxation tests were performed in the controlled strain regime. Total shear strain (rotation of upper geometry) was set to 1 % of the sample thickness and stress was applied for 60 s. Relaxation time was set to a period of 15 minutes. The shear stress relaxation behaviour of unaged bitumens and bitumens aged after 75 minutes and 225 minutes in Rolling Thin Film Oven Test (RTFOT) is presented and discussed.
Warm Mix Asphalt (WMA) is a viable alternate to Hot Mix Asphalt (HMA) for airport surfacing in Australia. Limited experience with this technology at Australian airports has prevented its acceptance by airport owners and their designers. WMA does have a significant track record in Europe and the USA, where it has been demonstrated to provide significant environmental, safety, quality and construction flexibility benefits. Differences in available binders and the Australian tendency for thinner asphalt layers and less capable materials makes direct extrapolation of experience from Europe and the USA inappropriate.
The aim of this paper is to demonstrate the comparative performance of WMA (by foamed bitumen technology) to HMA as an airport surface layer. Comparison between HMA and WMA has been made during a number of projects at Australian airports since 2012. A formal trial was performed at a military airfield as part of a broader project in 2013. A combination of production verification, quality assurance and mix performance tests were used to make comparisons. Subject to ongoing monitoring and performance testing of the military airfield WMA trial section, WMA is now verified as a viable alternate surfacing material for Australian airport runways.
Franco Pigozzi, Silvia Portas, Francesca Maltinti and Mauro Coni
The load-carrying capacity, is one of the indicators used to assess airfield pavement conditions. It could be estimated by evaluating the response of stationary dynamic loads, using a deflectometric device that simulates the stress inducted by an aircraft moving at moderate speed. This device is widely used because tests are nondestructive and rapid to execute and can be conducted for cyclic investigations, providing valuable support to maintenance and rehabilitation (M&R) decision makers through pavement management system (PMS). Pavement response is evaluated as a function of the deflection basin induced by the deflectometric device. It is well known that deflectometric measurements are influenced by external parameters such as weather conditions, especially temperature of upper layers or the percentage of water contained on unbounded layers. In this study the deflections basin response obtained for different load and weather conditions has been analyzed through the application of benchmarking values for immediately structural assessments. Tests were performed using the Heavy Weight Deflectometer (HWD) on 9 points along five longitudinal alignments from the centerline, 0.00 m, ± 3.00 m, and ± 5.20 m. The benchmarking methodology was used to evaluate and compare runway pavement performance under different weather conditions and testing loads. The applied benchmarking methodology resulted an easy and rapid assessment tool of pavement conditions at network-level.