Ayobami A. Akanmu, Umar O. Salisu, Simeon O. Fasina and Samuel A. Okunubi
Efforts to liberate the populace, most especially rural communities, from the shackles of poverty, have been ongoing through several approaches since the independent era in Nigeria. The most recent is the Local Empowerment and Environmental Management Programme (LEEMP) which is tailored to undertake projects capable of alleviating poverty. This study assessed the LEEMP projects in Itesiwaju Local Government Area of Oyo State in Nigeria. Data collection methods were through a questionnaire survey and an interview. A random sampling technique was employed to sample 152 residents from the study population of 30,400 and the results were analysed using both descriptive and inferential statistics. A binary logistics regression was used to determine the influence of the LEEMP projects on the socio-economic status of residents. The findings revealed that: LEEMP projects were mostly the initiatives of both the community and LEEMP officials (72%); over 80% of the respondents observed that community involvement was mainly about land provision and the labour force, justifying over 70% active involvement of the community in the project execution and maintenance. Inferentially, the prediction model was able to classify 83% of the cases correctly, indicating that the predictors contribute significantly to prediction power of the logistic regression model (p<0.000). The Pseudo R-Square of Cox & Snell’s R-square (28%) and Nagelkerke’s R (42%) also show that the model was relevant in predicting the influence of the LEEMP projects on the residents’ socio-economic status. However, age (p=0.000), household size (p=0.019), average monthly income (p=0.033), and educational status (p=0.038) predictors best contributed to the model prediction. The study, however, recommended among others, that the LEEMP projects should be extended extensively within the country accompanied by an injection of adequate funding and a project monitoring mechanism for continuous functionality and sustainability.
Aneesha Satya Bandi, Shashi Meshapam and Pratap Deva
Dense urbanization leading to uncontrolled transformations within settlements result in flash flooding with overflowing drains leading to a greater inconvenience for the public and damage to private properties. Hence mapping of flash floods would be useful in identifying the high-risk flood zones for disaster response and urban services, during emergencies with rainfall events of high intensity. This article aims to prepare a flood hazard map of Warangal Municipal Corporation (WMC) in Telangana State, India. WMC is chronically affected due to a rise in water levels resulting in flash floods, with an increase in encroachments. The factors considered in this study are rainfall (curve number), surface slope and surface roughness, type of soil, and distance to main channel, drainage density, and land use cover. To decide the relative weight of the impact of each flood causative factors an Analytical Hierarchical Process (AHP) was used. Accordingly, a composite Flood Hazard Index (FHI) has been derived by using the multiple-criteria decision-making tools by integrating these into a Geographical Information System (GIS). The Soil and Water Assessment Tool (SWAT) in Quantum GIS (QGIS), which is a hydrological model, was used to evaluate the projection of streamflow over the water basin and model parameters were optimized using water balance equations during calibration and validation periods.
Najum us Saqib, Asim Yaqub, Gomal Amin, Imran Khan, Faridullah, Huma Ajab, Iftikhar Zeb and Didar Ahmad
The northern area of Pakistan, Gilgit Baltistan (GB), has huge tourist potential due to its exotic mountain beauty. According to the GB Tourism Department, a large number of tourists (around 200651) visit GB every year from across the country. Due to a large influx of tourists in the area both positive and negative impacts have been felt especially on the environment and on the local communities. The environmental impacts of tourism were investigated in this research in two districts of GB. Three villages were selected from each of the districts of Hunza and Diamer as the basis of this research. This study was based on the perceptions and attitudes of the respondents. The total number of questionnaires completed was 340 filled from different respondent categories. Results showed that deforestation, loss of biodiversity, generation of solid waste, water, air and noise pollution, damage cultural and heritage sites and are the main environmental issues caused by tourism activities in the villages in these districts. About 42% of respondents said that deforestation and loss of biodiversity were high in the Diamer district while in Hunza 39% of respondents said that solid waste generation was high. Similarly, 21% respondents in Hunza and 14% respondents in Diamer agreed that water pollution is caused by tourism activities. Microbial analysis of water confirmed the presence of Salmonella typhi, E. coli and Enterobacter sp. There were positive impacts of tourism with results revealing that 87% of villagers and 98% of businessmen responded that tourism had provided them with jobs and business during the peak tourism season. Hotels and restaurants are the main source of jobs in GB mainly as porters and guides. According to the data collected dry fruits, medicinal herbs, gemstones and handicrafts provided considerable attractions for tourists. It is recommended that a combined effort be made by the local communities, tourism departments and other Govt. Agencies to ensure the cleanliness of tourist attractions.
The valuation of non–marketed goods and services of beaches in developing nations is rarely conducted; thus, lax management efforts at these resource–rich places often lead to degradation. In an attempt to resolve this issue the research used the travel cost valuation method and incorporated the use of geographic information system to estimate a never-before-done non-market valuation of the area visited by respondents at the beach of Patenga of Chittagong, Bangladesh. The uniqueness of the research stems from defining the area enjoyed by the survey respondents, via mapping, which helped assign the value generated to that particular part of Patenga and not the rest; this significantly decreased the underestimation problem of the travel cost methodology. The research used secondary sources and collected responses and geographical data from surveys conducted over a seven day period in March of 2018, from 277 respondents. A value of at least 14,331,044BDT/USD1.71million was estimated for 2018 for only 9% of Patenga. Furthermore, the Willingness to Pay approach was used to propose an entry fee of 15BDT/USD0.18 which would yield a revenue of more than 6,750,000BDT/USD79,882 around the year. The authors believe, these results will push the policy-makers and encourage stakeholder participation to better implement and monitor environmental management measures at Patenga.
The article presents an attempt to analyse population changes and to measure the strength of the impact of factors causing these changes in former voivodeship (province) cities in Poland. In view of the ongoing processes of suburbanisation, the discussion also concerns the areas surrounding the city, i.e. those creating urban systems together with the city. These zones were delineated, calling them demographic influence zones, because only demographic factors were involved in defining them. The research was conducted in the period between1999–2015, and took into account the administrative reform of the country that degraded 31 cities from voivodeship (NUTS-2) capitals to poviat (LAU-1) cities. The main aim of the study was to find an answer to the question: do the directions and the strength of population changes confirm a hypothesis of the destructive impact of the loss of administrative function on settlement units. The results of the study only partially confirmed this hypothesis. Although a decrease in the population is overwhelmingly predominant in the city core, in the case of the demographic influence zone, it has already increased. Counting both parts together, it was found that in half of the cases there was a decline and in the other half a growth of the population.
Ales Rudl, Ivo Machar, Lubos Uradnicek, Ludek Praus and Vilem Pechanec
Urban trees generate numerous ecosystem services, and these are often closely associated with the species, age and size of trees as well as with their vitality. Generally, the focus of urban and regional planning is aimed at very large trees, because very large trees are considered to be key green structures in an urban green infrastructure. However, there is a significant knowledge gap related to the importance of young trees in cities, despite their value in urban green spaces, greenways, parks, gardens, urban forests, and as components of green roofs and green walls. This study is the result of field mapping young trees in the urban area of the famous European historical city of Prague. Field mapping revealed a total of 40 individual young trees, or young tree groups, with cultural value in the study area of Prague. The results of this empirical study indicate that young trees (not just very large and old trees) can be very important structures for the provision of cultural ecosystem services in cities, and that they can be viewed as living cultural symbols. This is a new aspect in the awareness of the environmental and social roles of urban trees. This case study from Prague suggests that (i) young trees in urban areas need more attention from researchers and (ii) should be incorporated into urban planning as an important component of urban green infrastructure.
This study examined the perceptions of able-bodied beggars to factors responsible for their prevalence and the land uses they occupied for their activities in Ibadan metropolis. Nigeria. Data were obtained from 117 (18, 12, 46, 13 and 28 in the areas of Sango, Iwo Road, Sabo, Challenge and Oja Oba, respectively) randomly selected able-bodied beggars using a structured questionnaire. The data were analyzed using percentages, mean index, standard deviation, chi-square and Analysis of Variance (ANOVA). The study showed that 51.3% of the beggars were males; the youngest was 19 years old, while the oldest was 59 years. The average age of the beggars was 33 years. Further findings revealed that the average household size for the study area was 5, while the standard deviation was 2.6. The important perceived factors responsible for the prevalence of begging among the able-bodied beggars, measured on a 5-point Likert Scale, were homelessness (4.29), lack of skills for gainful employment (3.77), debt (3.64), meeting cost of education/children’s education (3.64), inability to secure a job (3.52) and lack of food (2.97). The study further revealed that the prevalence of begging among able-bodied beggars varied with land uses. Against this background, it was concluded that the information obtained on the socio-economic attributes of able-bodied beggars, perceived determinants of their prevalence and their targeted land uses could be utilized by policy-makers and urban planners to proffer lasting solutions to the menace of begging.
Kamila Svobodova, Luis Monteiro, Jiri Vojar and Katerina Gdulova
Planning for recreational activities in protected areas involves an understanding of multiple and complex factors. Trails constitute the main recreation facility in protected areas. They are an important and common infrastructure that concentrates visitor movement. Their sustainable planning and management requires an understanding of how the visitors made their selection. The aim of this study was to identify the effect of trail attributes on visitor numbers in the Krkonoše Mountains National Park in the Czech Republic. The methods used in this study present an analytical approach involving geographic information system analysis, field monitoring and data analyses using generalised linear models. The results showed the preferential tendencies among visitors to certain trail attributes. Marginal significance and a rather strong variability in preferences (over 10%) were identified for five trail characteristics: the amount of local attractions; diversity of land cover types; dominant land cover along a trail; soil erosion; and the type of trail surface. In our study, we illustrate an analytical framework for the assessment of trail characteristics that can help guide trail analyses and management efforts. On the other hand, our findings raise new research questions and point to the requirements for further research in order to better understand how environmental attributes influence visitor choice and to use this knowledge for trail planning and management.
The impact of individual septic tank effluent on groundwater quality was investigated in the rural area of the Ain Soltane municipality in Algeria. This area has an important number of individual septic tanks, and it is devoid of a drinking water supply and sewerage systems. The septic tank is a pre-treatment solution of sewage by bacteria living without oxygen (anaerobic). The alluvial aquifer in this area is covered by a layer of good permeability on the surface, which can pollute groundwater by vertical transport of pollutants through the soil, including microbial contamination. Groundwater samples were collected from 33 wells in the dry period of 2016. The monitoring of groundwater quality has shown a significant degree of organic and inorganic pollution in the majority of wells, with very high concentrations of sulphate and chloride exceeding 450 mg/l and 250 mg/l respectively. The analyzes also show the presence of bacterial germs in the groundwater of which the origin is faecal (faecal coliform densities are above 10 organisms per 100 ml, and the Total Streptococcus is more than 240 colonies per 100 ml). Monitoring confirms the contamination of these wells from septic tanks and that it was moving into groundwater, which makes it unfit for drinking due to the pathogenic germs. This poses a major problem for public health. This study has identified the effects of septic tank effluent on groundwater quality in this area.
The concept of globalization appeared in the Indian subcontinent in 1991. With the onset of liberalization, privatization and globalization a new chapter has been opened up in the Indian economy and her billion plus population. The Hugli district is one of the most renowned names in the handloom industry of West Bengal and a good percentage of people are engaged in this heritage industry. The study is conducted in five handloom clusters of the district, namely – Dhaniakhali - Somaspur, Begumpur, Haripal, Rajbolhat and Balagar. The main objectives of this paper were to investigate the effects of globalization on the rural handloom weaver community, in terms of their economic and social conditions. At the same time the article intends to analyse the changes in the over all production scenario of the handloom industry in the district due to modernization. It can be said that the handloom industry of the Hugli district is suffering from some inherent problems like low productivity, lack of product diversification and problems related to procuring raw materials. The co-operative sectors are indifferent to enlarging their market sphere. Though there are plenty of efficient and skilled weavers but they are only doing their traditional practices, the adoption of modern techniques is significantly poor among the weavers. Therefore the new generations are totally unwilling to accept weaving as their main occupation because of the uncertainty of the industry. The article also suggests some strategies to make this ever challenging industry globally competitive, such as, the identification of modern trends, promotion of exports, market assessment so that this heritage industry can cope with the modern trends and utilise the benefits of globalization.