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Calculation Approaches of the Probable Maximum Discharge of Spring Flood at Ungauged Sites in the Southern Buh River Basin, Ukraine

Abstract

Calculation of probable maximum discharge of spring flood are the great practical importance, since it is the basis to plan and design of different hydraulic structures, such as dams, culverts, urban and agriculture drainage systems, etc. Thus, the updating of the methodical approaches and parameters of the empirical formulas which using in the determining of the probable maximum discharge of spring flood at ungauged sites of the river basin is an actual task. In this paper for the Southern Buh River Basin were updated the parameters of the reduction formula and the limiting intensity formula of streamflow which are using to calculated of the probable maximum discharge of spring flood at ungauged basin in Ukraine. The presented results illustrate that parameters of empirical formulas that were calculated according to modern observation series (since the beginning of the observations to 2010) in comparison with previously received (since the beginning of the observations to 1980) have significant changes. We found out that it is due to cyclical of the long-term fluctuations of the maximum streamflow of spring flood in the Southern Buh River Basin. We also illustrated that for the small ungauged basins have the difficulties with the choice of rivers-analogues.

Open access
Comparison of Two RUSLE Models at the Hillslope Scale in Experimental Plots in Haiyuan, Ningxia, China

Abstract

Topsoil erosion and mass soil losses from hillslopes have negatively affected water quality, vegetation health, local ecosystems, and livelihood. Studies have stated the effectiveness of vegetation in significantly reducing top-soil erosion and enhancing slope stability. This study aims to better understand the application of erosional models in Haiyuan of Ningxia, a semi-arid region of China. The study site is comprised of 20 experimental plots with 11 vegetation covers and 5 slope gradients in design, which were compared to the benchmark of bare land with each slope gradient. Meteorological data and soil hydraulic measurements were collected from 2005 to 2012, and runoff and sediment load were measured by concrete basins at the base of the slopes, which mainly occurred during the summer storms. Multi-plots provide different combinations of vegetation covers and slopes to identify the driving factors of topsoil erosion during rainfall-runoff events and to examine the threshold behavior of their inter-relationship. In order to determine which models were most applicable to this area, the results of RUSLE and CSLE were applied to the data and compared to the known results.

Open access
Creative Economies and their Role in Territorial Systems Development

Abstract

Creative economies are today one of the fastest-growing economic sectors and an impressive transforming force, than can contribute to increasing territorial, regional or national competitiveness and, therefore, to economic growth and long-term development. The study aims to analyze the contribution of creative economies to the local and regional economy. Quantification of the role of creative economies in the economic profile was made by creating a database, at the level of administrative-territorial unit, with the main economic indicators (number of companies, number of employees, turnover and profit) for the creative economies, according to the NACE classification (Classification of National Economy Activities), for the period 2000-2016. The database was also used for the evolution of the ranks held by each economic sector for the analyzed period and for the development of trend matrices on the evolution of the above indicators, at the four-digit NACE code. The result highlight the importance of creative sector in the dynamics of local and regional economies of the territorial systems.

Open access
Disabled Population in India: A Regional Analysis

Abstract

Disability is a medical term in India and the person with impairment is considered to be disabled. India is still following the medical model of disability which is the oldest model of disability and highly criticized for providing a narrow definition for disability. Based on this model, Census of India 2011 has given eight categories of disabled population. This study is based on secondary sources of data from Census of India 2011 and Ministry of Social Justice and Empowerment. The principal objective of this paper is to understand and analyze the regional variation of disabled population of India and the location of national institutions for the disabled. Research reveals that the highest disability concentration is found in the central zone and the eastern zone of India. Moreover, types of disabled population also show a spatial pattern like seeing disabled population are concentrated in the eastern zone of India and speech disabled population are concentrated in the western zone of India. Further the result of study reveals that the number of institutes for the disabled are insufficient and the location does not align with the spatial pattern of types of disabled. The researcher suggests that there is a need for more national institutions to set up and location of the institutions must align with the spatial pattern of the types of disability.

Open access
Dynamics of the Entrepreneurial Sector in Territorial Systems with Tourist Functionality – Structural Trends and Changes

Abstract

The entrepreneurial sector can play an important role in increasing the functional complexity of the territorial systems with tourist functionality, by increasing the capacity of adapting the local economy to the changes caused by the economic crises. The study aims to analyze the dynamics of the entrepreneurial sector, for the period 2000-2016, and to identify the changes in the entrepreneurial profile, in the territorial systems with tourist functionality from Romania. To quantify this dynamics, a database was created, at the territorial administrative unit level, with the main economic indicators (number of companies, number of employees, turnover and profit). The database was also used for the development of trend matrices on the evolution of the above indicators, at the four-digit NACE code (classification of activities in the national economy), and on the evolution of the ranks held by each economic sector for the analyzed period. The result highlight the importance of the entrepreneurial sector, in the dynamics of local and regional economies of the territorial systems with tourist functionality.

Open access
The Flooding Risk in the City of Relizane (Algeria)

Abstract

The town of Relizane was built near Oued Mina, upstream of which is erected a dam of Sidi M'hamed Benaouda; while the city was protected in its time by a dike dating from the colonial period. Local authorities have recovered the land near the floodplain by building a new dike replacing the old one. However, flood risks persist on the city. Flood risk management plans for this new area should be provided for better protection of citizens and property.

Open access
The Learning of Multivariate Adaptive Regression Splines (MARS) Model in Rainfall-Runoff Processes at Pahang River Catchment

Abstract

Recently, a novel data mining technique, Multivariate Adaptive Regression Splines (MARS) has begun attracted attention from several hydrological researchers because their application is relatively new in modelling hydrological processes. The power of this approach has been proven in variety learning problems such as financial analysis, species distributions modelling, and doweled pavement performance modelling. Therefore, the objective of this paper is to investigate the performance of MARS model in capture the rainfall-runoff processes at river catchment of Malaysia. Pahang River has been selected as area of study. 30-years data set of daily rainfall and runoff at upstream tributaries of Pahang River were used to developed and validate the capability of MARS model in flood prediction. The effect of different length of record data to performance of MARS model was also examined by arranged the data into 5-years data set, 10 years data set, 20 years data set, and 30 years data set. All these data sets used 1-year data of 2003 for validation process while the others were applied for calibration. Simulation results showed that MARS model was able to learn the rainfall-runoff processes in Pahang River catchment and the model performance improved due to the longer period of data.

Open access
Solar Energy Industry as a Part of the Romanian Renewable Energy Industry: A Multi-level Territorial Approach

Abstract

The green economy emerges differently depending on each region particular features, as well as local economic strengths and weaknesses; solar energy however, represents the way regional and local natural potentials are valorized. The current paper brings to our attention aspects related to the economic and legislative factors influencing the use and territorial distribution of solar energy, as a component of the Romanian renewable energy industry at all territorial levels: the national characteristics of the use of renewable energy resources are highlighted through the analysis of dynamics of official statistical variables (National Institute of Statistics); at regional and county levels, the analysis highlights the territorial differences in the use of solar energy; analysis at local level reveals the environmental and socio-economic effects of the of solar energy use (i.e. photovoltaic parks), as indicated by the information provided by a questionnaire survey carry out in Giurgiu County (case study).

Open access
Combining Digital Elevation Data, Expert Knowledge and GIS for Geomorphological Mapping; The Case Study of Mount Hymettus, Athens, Greece

Abstract

This study presents a geomorphological map for Mount Hymettus (Athens, Greece). The geomorphological content was produced by processing DEM derived topographic attributes, hydrography and geology. In particular, the backbone of this procedure was the definition of the appropriate criteria for landform identification by validating conditional statements for the processed data in a GIS environment. Extended fieldwork and photo-interpretation verified the outputs. Following the assessment, the derived landforms were grouped into the following geomorphological units: the main alpine metamorphic mass, the foot slopes and the coastal area. A custom layout regarding symbology, colouring, and generalization was designed in order to highlight the captured geomorphological content. The results indicate that the DEM derived topographic attributes combined with the geological setting and the river network generate successfully a large number of landforms under certain circumstances.

Open access
Geo-Spatial Mapping of Land Use and Land Cover Changes in the Core and Periphery Area of Ranthambore Tiger Reserve, Rajasthan, India, 1975–2015

Abstract

In the near future, natural resources are very rapidly diminishing all over the globe. Which is very unhealthy for land ecosystem services. In the biodiversity, Tiger is an icon of healthy wildlife which is considered as a vital factor for maintaining Universal Food Chain System. This research paper is based on “Geo-Spatial Mapping of land use and land cover changes in the Core and Periphery Area of Ranthambore Tiger Reserve, Rajasthan, India, 1975-2015, it’s a micro level Study based on primary and secondary data through GIS mapping and consider as a Socio-Economic & Physical factors to inter-connect with Tiger habitats. Especially, core and periphery LULC have been obtained from the Multispectral images from ETM and ETM+ sensors of Landsat and LISS-III and AWiFS sensors of Resourcesat-satellites. This study examines the spatial and temporal patterns of LULC change along the boundary of Ranthambhore in the Rajasthan from 1975 to 2015. Tiger Landscape change within all ecological zones will be evaluated. The Landsat TM and ETM imagery will be used to produce LULC classification maps for both areas using a hybrid supervised/unsupervised methods. LULC changes are measured using landscape metrics and change maps created by post-classification through change detection. Using all the raster maps and the final change detection of the reserve will be done through spatial analysis using the raster calculator tool in ArcGIS and Erdas and MS Excel 13. The study comes out with land use and land cover change in core and periphery areas of the reserve. The research also describes Human Encroachment, Impact on human colonization, interfere with domestic animals, Interbreeding, and the Migration in core and periphery areas, finally, the situation would be alarming for biodiversity of tiger habitat due to the high pressure of anthropogenic activities.

Open access