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Subject and purpose of work: Integrated fare to date is essential for the efficient functioning of city transport services and for the involvement of citizens to shift from private to public transport. Implementation of this kind is a necessary component of the future development of the city in the direction of smart mobility.

Materials and methods: The research focuses on evaluating the barriers and challenges towards the implementation of an integrated fare in Ukraine, mainly using the city of Kyiv as a case study.

Results: The article analyzes early attempts to introduce an integrated fare, problems in the way of implementation and, basically, the experience of the EU cities, which may later be adopted. Next, it outlines some critical aspects in the relationship between government policy, city authorities, transport operators and city residents in the context of the introduction of an integrated fare.

Conclusions: The study highlights such priority challenges as legal, organizational, technical and social.


Subject and purpose of work: The objective of the study is to characterise the status and nature of local authorities’ relations with local communities and to assess the importance of local relations in the process of strengthening local innovation.

Materials and methods: The survey method was employed in the research and a questionnaire was sent to heads of communes /mayors via electronic means. The research material consisted of 105 questionnaire forms.

Results: There is a perceived imbalance in the development of interactions with social and economic actors to the disadvantage of interactions with economic sector representatives. Increasing local innovation rooted in the economic dimension of the development processes of the analysed local systems has been revealed to be of a relatively lesser importance. Local Action Groups are a major contributor to the development and innovation process, mainly in the social dimension. Local relations are not perceived by the representatives of local authorities as particularly important factors of regional innovation.

Conclusions: The analysis of the local systems revealed a need to increase the scale of activity of local government representatives as part of developing relations with the economic sector. Opportunities should be sought arising from building local partnerships aimed at the implementation of pro-innovative, multi-stakeholder projects, which will have a greater capacity to influence local development processes.


Subject and purpose of work: The aim of the conducted research and analyzes was the attempt to assess the impact of selected factors over tourist activity of people with disabilities and factors related to the immediate environment of people with disabilities

Materials and methods: A total of 5 000 respondents were subjected to the quantitative research. Participants of the research were adults with legally recognized disabilities. In the research, there was used the method of a diagnostic survey.

Results: Tourist activity of disabled people living in rural areas in Poland concerns only about 50% of respondents. Leaving the place of permanent residence in a free time is the most often declared by young and middle-aged people with higher, secondary and post-secondary education, professionally active, married people with mental and sensory disabilities.

Conclusions: Factors stimulating participation in tourism are the level of education and professional activity of respondents. In the assessment of respondents the important factor is also a general family situation.


Subject and purpose of work: This research was conducted to measure the influence of the Suramadu Bridge on the reduction of rural poverty and to determine the impact of production factors such as physical capital, natural capital, human capital and financial capital on poverty before and after the Suramadu Bridge began operating in Kabupaten Bangkalan.

Materials and methods: This study adapted the model used by Nashwari et al (2017) which was analysed applying Ordinary Least Square (OLS). The data from Village Potential 2007 and 2017 was used in the research.

Results: Many production factors in the village did not have a significant effect on the poverty reduction before the Suramadu Bridge began operating. After the Suramadu Bridge opened, it has had a significant negative impact on poverty. The number of farmers, rice fields, non-agricultural activities, superior products, skills facilities and credit facilities has a significant positive effect on the reduction of the poverty level.

Conclusions: The existence of the Suramadu Bridge has increased the influence of production factors in the villages on the poverty reduction in Kabupaten Bangkalan.


Subject and purpose of work: The thesis presents an overview of the economic issues which existed in the European Middle Ages and modern times, prior to establishing classical economics.

Materials and methods: The thesis was prepared based on the literature review which included scientific publications and websites devoted to the economy, as well as to social and cultural changes. During the Middle Ages, the mere survival was no longer satisfactory for humans; the times saw the accumulation of wealth, which turned out to be a prerequisite for participation in social life.

Results: The initial intellectual narrative was dominated by canonists who studied the laws emerging from religious doctrines, gradually shifting their focus to philosophy, emphasizing the importance of research methods based on reason. Many universal ideas were introduced at the time.

Conclusions: a) The focus on the method used as a research tool accelerated the emergence of particular areas of scientific studies; b) Christianity constituted the cultural core in the medieval period;c) Theology, in conjunction with philosophy, constituted the source allowing for the emergence of social sciences.


Subject and purpose of work: The article addresses the issue of the increasing use of payment cards in Poland and related consequences in the number and volume of transactions cash and cashless. The article analyzes the growing importance of cards as a transaction medium of Poles. The topic of potential alternative payment methods was also discussed.

Materials and methods: The study used the analysis of literature and source data from, among others, National Bank of Poland,, database, websites of banks and others. Descriptive and statistical methods were used in order to prepare the research.

Results: In Poland, the number of cards owned by citizens is growing rapidly, as well as the volume and number of transactions concluded with them. Customers, banks and economic and commercial units are most interested in payment cards market.

Conclusions: Transaction with cards deepens customer attachment to a particular brand of the organization and allows to gain benefit from transaction fees. The popularization of cards results in a limited share of cash in transactions. Making debit card payments requires customers to have sufficient deposits on the account, which is also an advantage for the bank. It is expected that the scope and role of mobile payments will grow dynamically.


Subject and purpose of work: The purpose of the paper is to present the state of and prospects for the development of cycling tourism in Central Roztocze, a physico-geographical mesoregion in south- eastern Poland.

Materials and methods: The research was carried out by means of a diagnostic survey using the survey technique and a literature review. It was carried out in the period from April to June 2018 on a sample of 128 tourists.

Results: The research showed that tourists most often cycle several times a week, covering distances of more than 30 km. The main reason for visiting this region is its natural values. The general assessment of the tourist routes indicates that they are not sufficiently prepared for tourists. It was also shown that in order to popularise cycling tourism, it is necessary to expand lodging facilities, and to provide more practical information about routes.

Conclusions: The main factor encouraging tourists to visit Central Roztocze is its natural beauty. The general condition of the routes was assessed by the respondents as “average”. The factor conducive to the development of cycling tourism in Central Roztocze might be the development of the cycling infrastructure, including lodging facilities and practical information on cycling trails.


Subject and purpose of work: The aim of the work is to present the possibilities and assess the use of support for smart specializations under the EU cohesion policy 2014-2020 in the Lubelskie Voivodeship. Research tasks: classification of projects implemented under the ROP of the Lubelskie Voivodeship 2014-2020 (ROP LV) depending on their adaptation to the region’s smart specializations; determining the size of support for the development of region’s smart specializations.

Materials and methods: The research material is a database of projects co-financed from EU funds for 2014-2020, projects implemented under axis 1 of ROP LV were analyzed.

Results: The total value of funding for the region’s smart specializations was PLN 194 million. The largest number of projects was implemented by enterprises within the specialization of IT and automation. About 20% of funds were acquired by entities from outside the smart specialization industries.

Conclusions: ROP LV is an important tool to support research and development activities in the Lubelskie Voivodeship.


Subject and purpose of work: Recently, research into the impact of air transport on the situation on local labor markets has been of great practical importance. These issues have become a source of interest in the study. The purpose of the article is an attempt to use taxonomic methods to analyze the spatial diversity of counties located in the catchment area (100 km) of Warsaw Chopin Airport due to the situation on local labor markets.

Materials and methods: Taxonomic methods were used as the research tool. The text also presents the methodology for identifying statistical units located in these areas, indicated by the Geostatistics Portal.

Results: The conducted process allowed to assess the impact of air transport on the economic situation on the local labor market due to the indicators selected for the study. The proposed method is a new, effective, useful and modern approach to obtaining and analyzing statistical data for the areas of influence of Polish airports. It should also be emphasized that it constitutes a certain contribution of the author to the development of research on the impact of air transport on the socio-economic development of regions.

Conclusions: The analysis allowed us to generally illustrate the spatial inequalities of the units selected for testing due to the adopted measures.