The world energy demand has become higher with the growing population, which has translated into an increase in emission of greenhouse gases into the atmosphere. For this reason, CO2 capture and storage has been undertaken to purify the atmosphere. For storing this CO2, it is necessary to have wells to inject it (deeper than 800 m); moreover, these wells need to have stability over time, and one of the stability aspects is the protection of steel against corrosion. Considering this aspect, the most common steels (focussed on American Petroleum Institute [API] steels) that can be used in an injector well were studied. The best performance was obtained using a high alloy content of Cr and Ni. Furthermore, the most important parameter analysed when corrosion is studied is the test time, which was modelled to stabilise the corrosion rates. The experiments were undertaken after a general review of different studies that investigated the corrosion of steel when in contact with CO2 in the vapour phase and under supercritical conditions.
Heavy mineral component of 13 samples from the Lokoja and Patti Formations, Bida Basin have been studied for their textural characteristics, compositional abundance, maturity and provenance determinations. The suite of heavy minerals encountered is classified as opaque and non-opaque constituents. The non-opaque components include zircon, tourmaline, rutile, garnet, staurolite, epidote, kyanite, titanite, lawsonite, cassiterite, sillimanite, hornblende, hypersthene and andalu-site. The assemblage is generally dominated by zircon and tourmaline in the two formations. The constituent heavy minerals identified are dominated by ultra-stable and stable classes, whereas the ZTR indices indicate mineralogical immaturity coupled with textural immaturity of the constituent grains. This suggests the possible dominance of chemical weathering of the source rock. The suites of minerals recovered have been linked to both metamorphic and non-metamorphic crystalline rock origins.
In production it is necessary to achieve conditions that lead to the minimum decarburization of a steel product’s surfaces. In this study, the hypo-eutectoid carbon steel C45 was annealed in air in the temperature range Ta = 600–1100 °C. The annealing times were between ta = ½ h and ta = 2 h. Different decarburizations occurred in different microstructures: ferrite–pearlite (Ta = 600 °C and 700 °C, Ta < AC1, no visible decarburization); ferrite–austenite (Ta = 760 °C, AC1 < Ta < AC3, visible decarburization); austenite at the beginning, ferrite– austenite after the incubation period (Ta = 850 °C, AC3 < Ta < 912 °C, visible decarburization); and austenite (Ta= 950 °C and 1100 °C, Ta> 912 °C, visible decarburization and overheating of steel). The edges were more prone to decarburization and to overheating. Stress relieving, normalizing and annealing before quenching of the steel C45 can be carried out in air.
Geochemical studies of claystone deposits from the Patti Formation in the southern Bida Basin, north-Central Nigeria, were carried out on representative samples to determine the basin’s depositional conditions, provenance and tectonic setting. The localities within the study area included Gegu, Ahoko, Ahoko-Etigi, Omu and Idu.
Semi-quantitative phase analysis using the Rietveld method and X-ray powder diffraction data revealed that the claystone samples had prominent kaolinite with other constituents such as quartz, illite–muscovite, K-feldspar, pyrite, marcasite, anatase, rutile and gorceixite.
Enrichment of Al2O3, Ba, Th, Sr, Cr and La suggests that these elements are primarily controlled by the dominant clay minerals.
Geochemical parameters such as U, U/Th, Ni/Co, V/Cr and Cu/Zn ratios strongly implied that these claystones were deposited in an oxidising environment. Provenance deducing ratios for felsic, mafic and basic igneous rocks were compared. Al2O3/TiO2 ratio suggested intermediate to felsic rocks as the probable source rocks for the claystone samples; however, Y/Ni, Cr/V, La/Sc and Th/Sc ratios suggested a felsic progenitor. The tectonic discrimination diagram showed that the samples’ plot was within the region specified for passive margin-type tectonic setting.
Integrated geophysical methods have been used to investigate the competency of the subsoil. The geophysical surveys conducted involve very low-frequency electromagnetic (VLF-EM) and electrical resistivity (ER) methods (dipole-dipole). ABEM Wadi and Ohmega resistivity meter were used to acquire VLF-EM and ER data, respectively, along two traverses. Station interval of 5 m was used for the VLF-EM survey, while inter-electrode spacing for dipole–dipole was 10 m; the inter-dipole expansion factor (n) ranged from 1 to 5. KHFFILT software was used to generate VLF-EM profiles and pseudosection, while DIPRO software was used for ER. Results from the ER method revealed the pattern of resistivity variations within the study area. The low resistivity values (11–25 Ohm-m) observed at the southern part of the study area could be attributed to changes in clay contents and degree of weathering in the subsurface. The results from the VLF-EM investigation revealed the presence of near-surface linear geologic structures of varying lengths, depths and attitudes, which suggest probable conductive zones that are inimical to the foundation of the road subgrade.
The area of the Bjelovar Subdepression in Northern Croatia, which represents the southwestern part of Drava’s depression, has been analysed. More than 700 depth data were collected in a regular grid covering the existing structural maps of e-log markers Rs5, Z’ and Δ, with cells 2 x 2 km in size. For zonal assessment, Thiessen polygon method was used as introductory analysis preceding Kriging interpolation on regional scale. The emphasis was on OK and UK interpolation, their comparison and selection of most appropriate method for mapping. Crossvalidation results proved UK technique to be the most appropriate in mapping of e-log markers Rs5 and Δ, thus acquiring the most accurate maps so far of the analysed Neogene area.
This paper presents an overview of additive manufacturing technologies for production of metal parts. A special attention is set to wire arc additive manufacturing (WAAM) technologies, which include MIG/MAG welding, TIG welding and plasma welding. Their advantages compared to laser or electron beam technologies are lower investment and operational costs. However, these processes have lower dimensional accuracy of produced structures. Owing to special features and higher productivity, the WAAM technologies are more suitable for production of bigger parts. WAAM technology has been used together with welding robot and a cold metal transfer (CMT) power source. Thin walls have been produced using G3Si1 welding wire. The microstructure and hardness of produced structures were analysed and measured. A research was done to determine the optimal welding parameters for production of thin walls with smooth surface. A SprutCAM software was used to make a code for 3D printing of sample part.
This article presents preliminary model results of climate change impact on biogeochemical processes in soil. With the use of DNDC (DeNitrification-DeComposition) model, a simulation with climate data over seventy years period (1947-2016) from central part of Slovenia has been carried out. Amongst assessed sources of variability, time variability has been estimated to around 10% of the total annual nitrogen leaching. In some cases, a statistically significant downward trend was observed with a 5 kg reduction in nitrogen per hectare in seventy years period. This study represents the first quantitative assessment of nitrogen leaching variability due to precipitation and air temperature variability in three representative soil profiles in the central Slovenia. It offers a starting point for future regional research for the purpose of farming practice optimization, especially in catchment areas of major regional water resources in Slovenia.
The development of the product from stainless steel, which is produced for the client in large series, is presented. Technological optimisation was mainly focussed on the design of the deep drawing process in a single operation, which proved to be technologically unstable and therefore unfeasible for the prescribed shape of the product. Testing of prototype products showed unacceptable wrinkling due to the cone-shaped geometry of the workpiece. For this purpose, the research work was oriented towards technological optimisation of forming operations and set-up of proper phase plan in order to eliminate the wrinkling of the material. Testing of several different materials of the same quality was performed to determine the appropriate input parameters used for digital analyses. The analyses were focussed towards the set-up of optimal forming process and appropriate geometry of the corresponding tool, which allowed deep drawing of the workpiece without tearing and/or wrinkling of the material. Performed analyses of the forming process in the digital environment were tested with experiments, which showed a good correlation between the results of both development concepts.
The complicated rock structures and the stability of surrounding rocks of the underground powerhouse are key ground mechanical challenges for hydropower projects. In this paper, an example of contributing self-support capacity of rock mass to evaluate optimised support for long-term usage of structure is given. It describes importance of investigations in the initial in situ stress distribution, rock mechanical and geological properties, engineering rock mass classifications by different methods, numerical modelling, comparison of tools for stability and support analysis and proper stability control for rock excavation and support. The results show that after underground excavations in hard rock, detailed analysis of measures to investigate deformation and self-supporting capacity creation is useful and a cost-saving procedure.