Classical swine fever virus (CSFV) causes an economically important and highly contagious disease of pigs, leading to economic losses around the world. Attenuated live vaccines with CSFV antigens have played an important role in the prevention and control of the disease. Porcine kidney 15 (PK15) cells have been widely used for the propagation of CSFV, but this cell line is not efficient or homogeneously susceptible to viral infection.
Material and Methods
To achieve a homogeneous PK15 cell line which enabled high titre replication of CSFV, we used the limiting dilution cell cloning method.
We developed two cell clones, PK15-1A6 and PK15-3B1, which respectively have high- and low-permissive phenotypes to CSFV infection. The PK15-1A6, PK15-3B1, and PK15 parent cells showed different characteristics in cell proliferation rate, susceptibility to CSFV infection, and CSFV production. The mean virus titres per millilitre reflected by TCID50 values in PK15-1A6, PK15-3B1, and PK15 parent cells were 106.85, 103.63, and 104.74, respectively.
The PK15-1A6 cell clone is more permissive to CSFV infection than the PK15 parent cells. The screened high-permissive cells will be useful for CSFV propagation and vaccine development in vitro, and facilitate research on the pathogenicity of CSFV.
In canine and feline populations, the number of neoplasm cases continues to increase around the world. Attempts are being made in centres of research to identify new biomarkers that speed up and improve the quality of oncological diagnostics and therapy in human and animal tumour patients. Cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) is a promising biomarker with increasing relevance to human oncology, but as yet with less application in veterinary oncology. The expression of COX-2 increases significantly during pathological processes involving inflammation, pain or fever. It is also overexpressed in humans presenting various types of tumours and in selected types of tumours in animals, particularly in dogs. This article discusses the expression of COX-2 in canine and feline tumours, the importance of COX-2 as a biomarker with diagnostic, therapeutic, prognostic and predictive relevance in oncology, and the clinical significance of inhibiting COX-2 overexpression in tumours.
The aim of this study was to determine the content of fatty acids in eggs harvested from two edible subspecies of Polish-bred common garden snail from the Cornu genus, as well as this content in the retail-ready product obtained from these eggs.
Material and Methods
Material for the study consisted of eggs from two subspecies of edible snails: the small (Cornu aspersum aspersum), and large (Cornu aspersum maxima) common garden snails. The eggs studied were in two forms, the first of which had undergone initial processing to the half-product stage and the second of which was the final product available on the Polish market under the name “Snail Eggs”. The gas chromatography method was used to determine the content of fatty acids.
More than 75% of the studied fats were saturated fatty acids, dominated by palmitic and stearic acids. The average content of polyunsaturated fatty acids was 0.37%, and it was a combination of two acids: linoleic (C18:2n6c), and its trans isomer (C18:2n6t). No significant differences were found comparing individual fatty acids content between the two species’ eggs as half-products, or between the half-products and the final product.
The fat in raw and processed eggs of common garden snails holds low nutritional value, and the processing did not affect the content of fatty acids.
The aim of this study was to present two outbreaks of bovine abortion due to Leptospira infection in cattle herds located in the northern part of Sicily (Italy). The animals were positive for Leptospira interrogans serogroup Sejroe serovar Hardjo in a microscopic agglutination test (MAT).
Material and Methods
A total of 23 Charolaise cows (farm A) and 75 Limousine bulls and Cinisara and Modicana cows (farm B) were enrolled in this study. The blood samples were collected from all subjects at the following time points: before a cycle of intramuscular treatment with oxytetracycline dihydrate (T0), after 5–6 weeks from the treatment (T1), and every 10 weeks until seronegativisation (T2 in Farm A and T3 in Farm B). A serological test (MAT) was used for the diagnosis of leptospirosis.
Two samples from farm A (2/23) and 29 samples from farm B (29/75) were positive to Leptospira interrogans, serogroup Sejroe, serovar Hardjo in the MAT. Leptospira spp. DNA was detected by real-time PCR in the urine sample of one positive cow on farm A, and in placenta and brain samples belonging to one aborted foetus on farm B.
It is important to use serological and molecular diagnostic techniques complementarily to identify infected individuals.
Based on analysis of available genome sequences, five gene lineages of MHC class I molecules (MHC I-U, -Z, -S, -L and -P) and one gene lineage of MHC class II molecules (MHC II-D) have been identified in Osteichthyes. In the latter lineage, three MHC II molecule sublineages have been identified (MHC II-A, -B and -E). As regards MHC class I molecules in Osteichthyes, it is important to take note of the fact that the lineages U and Z in MHC I genes have been identified in almost all fish species examined so far. Phylogenetic studies into MHC II molecule genes of sublineages A and B suggest that they may be descended from the genes of the sublineage named A/B that have been identified in spotted gar (Lepisosteus oculatus). The sublineage E genes of MHC II molecules, which represent the group of non-polymorphic genes with poor expression in the tissues connected with the immune system, are present in primitive fish, i.e. in paddlefish, sturgeons and spotted gar (Lepisosteus oculatus), as well as in cyprinids (Cyprinidae), Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar), and rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss). Full elucidation of the details relating to the organisation and functioning of the particular components of the major histocompatibility complex in Osteichthyes can advance the understanding of the evolution of the MHC molecule genes and the immune mechanism.
Common parasites of the European bison include gastro-intestinal and pulmonary nematodes, liver flukes (Fasciola hepatica), tapeworms, and protozoa of the genus Coccidia. This study compared the extensiveness and intensities of European bison parasitic invasions in three north-eastern Polish forests in different seasons and queried the role of parasitological monitoring in sanitary and hygienic control of feeding places.
Material and Methods
Faecal samples were collected in the Białowieża, Knyszyńska, and Borecka Forests between 2014 and 2016, as were some from an area neighbouring the Białowieża Forest outside the Natura 2000 protected area. Parasites were detected in individual samples with the flotation, decanting and Baermann methods.
The eggs of Trichostrongylidae, Aonchotheca sp., Nematodirus sp., Strongyloides spp., Trichuris sp., Moniezia spp., and Fasciola hepatica; the larvae of Dictyocaulus viviparus; and the oocytes of Eimeria spp. were identified. Significant variation in invasion intensity and diversity was seen by origin and season. The relationships were assessed first by univariable tests and next multivariately, when origin and season emerged as the major risk factors for exposure to most of the parasites.
The differences in the level of parasitic infection between the forests did not have implications for its sufficiency to cause clinical symptoms. However, the associations and risk factors found enable the necessary preventive measures to be taken to protect the E. bison from exposure or decrease the risks. Additionally, parasitological monitoring is appropriate as the method of sanitary and hygienic control of European bison winter feeding places. Threats to public health through adventitious invasions by zoonotic factors such as F. hepatica have been identified.
Porcine epidemic diarrhoea virus (PEDV) infection causes watery diarrhoea, vomiting, anorexia, and weight loss, especially among neonatal piglets, inflicting on them morbidity and mortality potentially reaching 90%–100%. Despite it being known that certain mammalian cell phases are arrested by PEDV, the mechanisms have not been elucidated, and PEDV pathogenesis is poorly understood. This study determined the effect of an epidemic PEDV strain on cell cycle progression.
Material and Methods
We observed the effect of the PEDV SHpd/2012 strain on an infected Vero cell cycle through flow cytometry and Western blot, investigating the interrelationships of cell-cycle arrest, the DNA damage–signalling pathway caused by PEDV and the phosphorylation levels of the key molecules Chk.2 and H2A.X involved upstream and downstream in this pathway.
PEDV induced Vero cell-cycle arrest at the G1/G0 phase. The phosphorylation levels of Chk.2 and H2A.X increased with the prolongation of PEDV infection, and no significant cell-cycle arrest was observed after treatment with ATM or Chk.2 inhibitors. The proliferation of PEDV was also inhibited by treatment with ATM or Chk.2 inhibitors.
PEDV-induced cell-cycle arrest is associated with activation of DNA damage–signalling pathways. Our findings elucidate the molecular basis of PEDV replication and provide evidence to support further evaluation of PEDV pathogenesis.
The therapeutic effect of subcutaneous embedding and revascularisation on the repair of canine bone defects caused by open fracture was examined.
Material and Methods
A total of 12 adult beagle dogs were randomly split into a control group (group C) and a test group (group T). A section of the radius was removed from each dog under general anaesthesia and the deficit supported by an orthopaedic implant. Group T had the section surgically implanted next to the blood vessel–rich saphenous vein and Group C had it cryopreserved at −80°C. After eight weeks, the bone was surgically implanted back into the matching radial deficit. Bone healing was evaluated by gross morphological and X-ray examinations, post-mortem histology, and successive blood measurements of key bone biochemical markers.
At 12 weeks, the bone healing boundary was disappearing more quickly in group T dogs than in their group C counterparts. X-ray and histological examinations showed that the cortical repair of group T subjects was complete and the bony plate arrangement was more regular than that in group C. The levels of bone biochemical markers also proved that the healing state of group T was better.
The results showed that the degree of healing, osteoclast activity, and bone formation status of group T were better than those of group C, proving that the vascularised bone graft had a significantly shorter healing time than the cryopreserved bone graft.
Introduction. Shortage of nurses reported in the EU (European Union) among other causes is related to: non-attractive work conditions, lack of willingness to take up job as a nurse (despite their education), and high risk of professional burnout. Encouraging graduates to take up a job in the profession and remain is a challenge for employers and institutions involved in the problems of modern nursing. Teaching nurses how to: protect themselves from professional burnout, how to combine career ambitions, family needs and above all personal satisfaction is of utmost importance. Amongst possible solutions which enhance planning of career and personal development in a deliberate manner, as is the case in other professions, it may be worth considering the support of a coach.
Aim. Analysis of the professional situation of nurses in the context of need for individual development using the coaching method.
Method. A method of analysis and criticism of the literature was used.
Conclusions and results. Coaching gives an opportunity for conscious planning process of nurse professional development in synchrony with needs and expectations for personal, family and social life. Better stress management, maintaining work-life balance and professional burnout prevention are benefits provided by this approach.
Introduction. The dynamic development of new technologies and the dissemination of mobile applications in everyday life create opportunities for using the new form for activities within the framework of women’s health education.
Aim. The work aims to review mobile applications that can be used in women’s health education in obstetrics and gynecology, and to determine their range of functions facilitating independent control of women’s health.
Material and method. The research of mobile applications was limited to the ones available for Android and iOS (iPhone). The source of all information are the websites of the software producers. The criteria for including the application in the analysis were: availability on the website play.google.com and usefulness in obstetric-gynecological care of women. As many as 27 applications with the highest number of downloads became the subject matter of the analysis.
Results. Due to the substantive scope of women’s health education, mobile applications were classified into three groups: 1) helpful in controlling the menstrual cycle, 2) helpful in monitoring pregnancy, 3) used in the prevention of diseases in gynecological-obstetric care. Out of all the applications available, 10 were classified to the first and second group each, and 7 to the third one.
Conclusions. Mobile health applications are a promising strategy for health education as a tool for monitoring, improving self-control, and raising awareness in the care of women.