Jaana Sepp, Marina Järvis and Karin Reinhold
The humankind is ageing rapidly, and as a result, there is an increasing need for old people’s homes. The nursing homes face different problems in financing and recruiting the labour force and management. Lack of resources causes the situation, when managers have to find possibilities to accomplish services and to provide quality care with the limited funds. This situation has an additional impact on the nursing professionals, who have to deal with many psychosocial risk factors in their work. The aim of the paper is to explore the work-related psychosocial risk factors and their relationships with mental health problems (MHPs) amongst care workers. A cross-sectional survey was undertaken amongst the care workers in nine Estonian nursing homes. Psychosocial work factors and MHPs (stress, somatic symptoms, depressive symptoms, burnout, cognitive symptoms, and sleep disorders) were analysed using the second version of the Copenhagen Psychosocial Questionnaire (COPSOQ II). Descriptive statistics and Pearson’s r correlation were used to analyse the data. The analysis was based on 340 care worker surveys. The highest mean scores for the studied work-related psychosocial factors were recorded for the quantitative demands, influence, rewards, role conflicts, trust, insecurity and work-family balance. Low mean scores were recorded for the meaning of work, role clarity, social relationships at work. The lowest score was followed by burnout and the highest - by cognitive symptoms.
Jani Bekő and Darja Boršič
We examine the purchasing power parity (PPP) hypothesis of 10 members of ASEAN. A battery of panel unit root tests is employed on data series from January 1995 to January 2018 in order to search for validity of PPP in the period before the Great Recession and in the post-crisis period. All the calculations are based on four numeraire currencies: Chinese yuan (CNY), Japanese yen (JPY), US dollar (USD), and the euro (EUR). First, following the outcome of the present study for ASEAN countries, the PPP holds mostly with respect to CNY rates. Second, for the post-financial crisis period, our research proves conclusively that the PPP supposition is predominantly valid between the currencies of ASEAN countries and EUR rates. The sample of countries in the study is limited to the ASEAN group of economies. Based on the evaluated parity conditions, the emergence of global economic crisis brought about significant currency shifts in the ASEAN. The selection and testing of a broader range of numeraire currencies is vital to provide empirical underpinning for PPP notion.
This research discusses the role of social entrepreneurship as an important feature of the moral economy, i.e., a socially responsible business practice. Developing countries, e.g., Georgia, a post-Soviet country, differ from those in the West in this aspect. The author aims to identify peculiarities of social entrepreneurship and corporate social responsibility of Georgian businesses. Desk research provides conceptual analysis of the existing quantitative and qualitative studies, based on prominent scientists’ works in economics and entrepreneurship. A “moral economy” understands business activities as “social services.” Social responsibility is a business’s moral framework, suggesting a company’s obligation to generate social benefit. Social entrepreneurship combines the best practices from the nonprofit and for-profit activities to tackle social needs poorly addressed by businesses and governments. Social entrepreneurship is a relatively new phenomenon in post-Soviet countries, where nongovernmental organizations help in solving many social problems, but their efforts are typically insufficient. Entrepreneurs must find a balance between a company’s success, employees’ needs, and environmental and social stability. These three priorities form the foundations of corporate social responsibility. Economic history provides many examples of moral standards driving the stability of a socio-economic system and profitability of companies with macroeconomic and microeconomic positive impacts. Companies operating in Georgia spend their funds on social projects and charity; moreover, such socially oriented activities are sometimes chaotic. Companies need to implement social responsibility projects as part of their business plans. Strengthening corporate social responsibility could thus support development of social entrepreneurship.
Contemporary third-party logistics (3PL) companies tend to broaden their competences in different fields and apart from traditional logistics services provide various value-added services to their customers. A systematic approach of 3PL resource management, as well as performance and quality indicator measurement are needed to forecast development of key performance indicators of a company. The purpose of this study is to discover contemporary tendencies of 3PL with regard to resources, performance and quality related issues, to determine resources, processes and quality indicators of 3PL, and to develop a system dynamics model for optimization of internal resources and processes of a company. The paper provides a systematic review of literature related to management of 3PL resources, quality and performance measurement. A model of management and optimization of 3PL resources and internal processes is developed by applying System Dynamics. The developed model consists of six blocks, namely, commercial activities, operations, procurement, administration, personnel management and quality management, representing different areas of internal activities of 3PL.
Filiz Ersoz, Deniz Merdin and Taner Ersoz
Rapid development of technology, particularly in the field of artificial intelligence, has fuelled the concept of Industry 4.0 among all types of businesses across the globe. This has driven sustainable growth for those businesses as well as promoted economic prosperity in the countries where they operate in. In view of this information, it is of absolute importance that the entire business landscape in Turkey avails itself to greater awareness and education about the benefits of embracing a comprehensive Industry 4.0 philosophy. It is also important to shed the light on the problems these businesses may face in transition from the old industrial philosophies to the new philosophy of Industry 4.0. Therefore, the aim of this study is to measure the level of Industry 4.0 awareness among businesses in Turkey. The research also seeks to determine how targeted Industry 4.0 educational programs and policies vary in relation to the demographic characteristics among some business operators in Turkey. A multiple case study design governed this entire research. Thus, views and in-depth data from 32 companies based in Turkey were collected by questionnaire and subsequently analysed in a detailed format. At the end of the study, the findings revealed that Industry 4.0 awareness differed depending on the employees’ levels of education. The researchers also discovered that the status or extent of relationships these companies had with foreign partners abroad has a significant impact on the awareness levels of Industry 4.0.
The purpose of this paper is to derive a model for calculation of maturities and volumes of repayments that a bank may expect from nonretail nonperforming loans (hereafter NPLs). Expected inflows from nonretail NPLs follow a probability distribution, defined by size and timing of historic repayments of NPLs. Empirical analysis has shown that probability distribution of expected inflows from nonretail NPLs considerably deviates from symmetric distribution and is asymmetric to the right. Accuracy of derived model depends upon available data in banks about NPLs by corporate sectors and recovery rates by time intervals. The model in this paper is in interest of any bank and in particular of banks with a higher fraction of NPLs in their loan portfolio. Contribution of this paper to the added value in the area of liquidity risk management in banks is high because the remaining literature does not deliver other models for the same purpose.
Igor Perko and Zoraida Mendiwelso-Bendek
Gaming has the potential to support the development of young people’s capabilities in social responsibility (SR) and, at the same time, represents a threat of developing undesired behaviour patterns. Successful integration of gaming in the lives of young people requires a systemic approach, which, to the best of our knowledge, hasn’t been provided in the literature. We provide insight into this issue. In this paper, multiple methods are used. To elaborate the backgrounds on the gaming’s effects and social behaviour, the literature is analysed. To assess the state-of-the art of young people characteristics, their pressing social challenges and gaming evaluation reports are analysed. The synthesis is provided and placed in the context with social responsibility properties using system dynamics. Gaming concepts, appropriate for education for SR, and relationships between young people’s challenges and the players in the gaming environment in SR terms are proposed. Currently, the loop of games development is negatively propelled by the short-term games demand. We propose effective feedback loops, linking young people and their social environment, using a SR tool set to provide demands to the game providers. The experience will support the games developers to design socially constructive games, aiming to develop the desired skills and competencies in social transformation processes of young people toward SR. The proposed model provides merely an overview model, designed by the literature review and state-of-the-art analysis. To fully understand the games’ effects on young people, a more detailed analysis is required.
Safet Kurtović, Sabina Šehić-Kršlak, Blerim Halili and Nehat Maxhuni
The main goal of this paper is to examine the influence of macro factors and the degree of the exchange rate pass-through (ERPT) on aggregate and disaggregate import prices of the industrial sectors in the short- and long-run. The study is based on a model used by Campa and Goldberg (2002) and Campa et al. (2005). The ERPT is determined by applying the single equation and the cointegration approach (autoregressive distributed lag model [ARDL]), vector decomposition, and data over the period from 2002Q1 to 2016Q4. In the long-run, the ERPT is complete for the aggregate import and for the industrial sector beverages and tobacco. In the short-run, the ERPT is incomplete for the aggregate import and for majority of industrial sectors. Further, we have discovered that the degree of the ERPT is higher with heterogeneous products than with homogeneous products. Due to the inaccessibility of data for micro factors, we were not able to determine their effect on import prices. The results of our research can help economic policymakers to create adequate measures in the field of economic policies that will improve the competitiveness of the economy. Finally, this paper identified the effect of the volatility degree of the ERPT on the disaggregate import prices of industrial sectors that has not been sufficiently explored so far.
Abraham Osa Ehiorobo
This study examines resource allocation and utilization in Nigeria as the missing link in the nation’s quest for sustainable development. The main objective of the research is to examine how inefficient allocation and utilization of material, human and financial resources has made the attainment of sustainable development goals (SDGs) elusive in Nigeria. Given the abundant resources at the disposal of successive regimes in the country, it is difficult to explain why the citizens remain desperately poor with 70 percent living below poverty line. The excruciating poverty faced by the rural majority and the urban poor has led some people into indulging in unwholesome practices such as armed robbery, pipeline vandalism, prostitution, risky migrations, advanced fee fraud and other forms of social vices. The paper utilizes a qualitative design based on the interpretivist philosophy while the ontological orientation is subjectivism. Findings from the study indicate that there has been gross inefficiency in resource allocation and utilization in Nigeria due to corruption, ethnic prejudices, bad governance practices, absence of accountability, lack of transparency and wasteful spending on frivolous activities. Conclusion drawn from the study indicates that if proper project planning, execution, monitoring and evaluation are carried out in a transparent manner, and resources are efficiently allocated and utilized, Nigeria would be on the path to sustainable development. The paper therefore recommends that economic and technical efficiencies should be embraced in resource allocation and utilization for Nigeria to attain sustainable development goals.