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Abstract

This study comparatively investigates the impacts of fiscal and monetary policies on poverty in Nigeria from 1986 to 2018. Using the Ordinary Least Square and Standardized or Beta Coefficient approach, we found that the Nigerian political system plays a vital role on a large number of its citizens living in extreme poverty. Other factors identified as the likely causes of poverty are insurgencies, terrorism, and low productivity among others. Also, monetary policy is more important in alleviating poverty than the fiscal policy which favored the monetary school arguments. Specifically, monetary measures like exchange rate and interest rate are more significant in alleviating poverty far more than inflation rate while fiscal measures proxy with government recurrent expenditure plays a more vital role in alleviating poverty in Nigeria than others like government capital expenditure and government recurrent expenditure. The study recommended that in the case of monetary measures, there is a need for Government through the Central Bank of Nigeria, to shift their attention towards key monetary policy measures like interest rate and exchange rate compare to other monetary measures.

Abstract

Nowadays, around the world, it can be noticed an important trend towards the pension system reforms. The creation of the European fiscal space, the effects of globalization and the movement of the labour force are important vectors towards creating a new type of social economy. The labour force is constantly moving around the countries that gathered important amounts of capital, especially in industrialized countries. Moreover, the lower levels of the birth rate combined with the increasing level of death rate unbalance the labour market. The entire European continent undergoes a demographical transition period, highlighted by aging and intensive migration. This phenomenon is registered both outside and inside the European Union, especially upon the highest industrialized Western countries. In this context, the human capital role and quality gain an important topic throughout the social and economic developments. In this article, we tackle some important aspects regarding the correlation between the actual status quo of population structure and some important features of future pension systems.

Abstract

This study provides an exploratory review of the trends, policy reforms, and determinants of fiscal deficits in Tanzania during the period 1980-2017. During this period, the country undertook various fiscal policy reforms intended to improve revenue mobilization and expenditure efficiency. The most significant of these reforms included the introduction of the semi-autonomous revenue authority and an extensive public financial management reform program. While the post-independence period was characterized by large fiscal deficits, recent trends show that fiscal deficits in Tanzania have been contained, even as some public investment management challenges exist. The review of trends and literature suggests that fiscal deficits are linked to the structure of the economy, low levels of development, donor aid and grants, as well as the overall macroeconomic environment. In particular, fiscal deficits are associated with growth cycles, inflationary episodes, and external sector developments.

Abstract

The quality of works and a good reputation on the market are the main factors that lead to the success of a construction business. That is why most of the projects carried out in this sector involve the provision of performance guarantees which are mainly constituted by retaining the amounts from each payment. This impacts the cash, but also the liquidity ratios of the entities. The purpose of our research is to analyze the influence of the operating cash flow and the current liquidity ratio on the profitability in the case of construction companies. For this, we have developed a linear regression model on cross-section financial data related to a single reporting year and obtained from construction companies in western Romania. The results we have obtained did not reveal statistical significance for the exogenous variables used in the model. However, we consider it important to deepen the problem of cash flows and the ability of construction companies to meet their short-term obligations in the context of retaining performance guarantees. Further research in this regard based on panel data for several financial periods could provide relevant results

Abstract

Misinformation has always existed and has been promoted by groups of individuals, who share the same interests, in order to reach ideological, political or financial goals. In recent years, the emergence of the Internet and social platforms has opened a new and larger dimension in the dissemination of false content and information. With the help of these new technological means, the process of manipulation has evolved and reached a new level which materialized in the concept of fake news. The negative effects associated with this phenomenon have aroused interest among specialists, who are striving to find efficient instruments in order to combat the dissemination of fake information.

In this context, I have developed a scoring model for the detection of fake news, which aims to combat the spreading of false information regarding specialized economic sectors, such as the energy field. Moreover, the model could also be implemented as an important instrument in the fighting against this negative phenomenon that can affect the way public figures, institutions, companies or industries are being perceived by the public opinion.

Abstract

The main objective of the research is to study the perception of students in accounting profile within the "AurelVlaicu" University of Arad in comparison with the employers’ perception of the hard and soft skills needed in view of the accounting graduates’ access on the labour force market. The target group has been asked to express its opinion on the skills required to candidates to access the jobs in order to penetrate the labour force market in the field of accounting. In order to achieve this objective, an empirical study based on a cross-cutting descriptive research has been carried out, the method chosen is the survey based on a questionnaire. The target group consists of 250 students majoring in accounting within "AurelVlaicu" University of Arad, as well as from 300 professional accountants who are members of CECCAR (The Body o Experts and Chartered Accountants of Romania). The case study concluded that a large part of the interviewed accountants have considered that employers would be increasingly interested in hiring young graduates in accounting that hold strong soft skills, being also willing to subsequently invest in trainings to develop their hard skills that they need daily in the chosen job. In order to succeed and perform in the field in which they will work, accounting students (future accounting professionals) must hold a set of powerful soft skills to complete the hard skills acquired and tested during the academic studies. The target group interviewed in the case study considers it would be useful the accounting students to participate in internships, scientific sessions, Erasmus scholarships, voluntary actions, Work and Travel Programs, teambuilding programs, national and international projects, summer schools, student scientific clubs to develop hard and soft skills during the university studies. In order to generate sustainable organisational success, future professionals who will be working in the field of accountancy will have to possess both hard skills and soft skills to be able to contribute in this way to the success of the organization they will be part of and the accounting profession will gain.

Abstract

Japan's thinking and management practices have developed under the strong influence of culture. The contemporary economic and social circumstances, marked by the phenomenon of globalization, raise the question of the perenniality and transferability of the traditional Japanese management style.

Abstract

Our paper focuses on the role of the Internet in older people’s lives and suggests that the weighting given to Internet usage should be increased when calculating the Active Ageing Index (AAI). We analyse the results of two weighting systems, which differ from the original one created by an expert group. First, we use the coefficients calculated by Djurovic et al. (2017), then create our own system in which the Internet usage component is given a very high coefficient value, ceteris paribus. Evaluations are done for AAI 2010, 2012, 2014, 2016 and 2018. The rank order of countries differs in the alternative weighting systems, but these differences are slight, and decrease year by year, suggesting the robustness of the original weighting system. This also shows that older EU citizens are using the Internet more and more, and that Internet usage is becoming a category similar to basic literacy. Finally, we recommend that AAI include a more sophisticated indicator of Internet usage instead of just asking respondents if they have used the Internet at least once a week in the previous three months.

Abstract

The present study presents, from the theoretical and pragmatic point of view, 6 of the established score models regarding the assessment of the insolvency risk, belonging to the Anglo-Saxon, Continental and Romanian schools. The research sample is made up of 26 companies belonging to the hotel industry and restaurants, listed on the Bucharest Stock Exchange. The research was carried out over a period of 11 years (2007-2017). Following the application of the score models, it was found that during the period covered by the research, a number of 14 companies had a relatively high insolvency risk and 12 of them had a relatively low insolvency risk.

Abstract

The paper examined the effects of energy use on socioeconomic predictors in Africa. The Gary Becker hypothesis and the Michael Grossman demand for healthcare model were used to interact with energy related predictors on socioeconomic essentials. Our experimented model foretold the urgent need for government intervention programmes to resolve the energy misery in the African region.