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Todd J. Barry

Abstract

This paper puts forth a new scholarly approach to trade negotiations, for practitioners of international agreements, or simply to business students attempting to understand Ricardian trade theory. The paper hypothesizes that matrices can provide a simpler conceptual framework for considering Ricardo’s comparative advantage, especially when multiple goods and multiple countries are involved, in order to determine which countries should produce which goods. Numerous theoretical examples are presented, singularly, and jointly, as are different possible flaws and assumptions, additional applications, and alternative uses of the matrices, such as employing matrices to increase production of certain goods needed during crises or shortages. The article also argues that “terms of trade” should not be “assumed” in trade models but be based upon indifference curves, and addresses other influencing factors such as neoclassical changes in utility or in production. Found valid, the paper applies this method of trade simplification to pressing international situations, the question of “Brexit,” the sobriquet for the United Kingdom’s effort to withdraw from the European Union, which creates interesting possibilities for new trade deals, and the renegotiation of the North American Free Trade Agreement (NAFTA). The conclusion conceptually compares bilateral and multilateral trade, singularly, and with all countries together.

Open access

Anna Sączewska-Piotrowska

Abstract

The aim of the paper was to assess differentiation of the occurrence of households’ income affluence in Poland between subregions. An analysis was conducted using two-level logit models without explanatory variables (null model) and with explanatory variables at household level (random intercept model and random slope model). The variables were related to the characteristics of the household and its head. The conducted analysis allowed to state that the occurrence of affluence is differentiated between subregions in the null model as well as in the model with explanatory variables.

Open access

Elżbieta Roszko-Wójtowicz and Jacek Białek

Abstract

The consumer price index (CPI) is acommon measure of inflation. Similarly to the harmonised index of consumer prices (HICP), it is determined using the Laspeyres index, thus data on the consumption of the basket of goods do not have to be current. The Laspeyres index, using weights only from the base period, may not reflect changes in consumer preferences that occurred in the studied year. This is the reason for the formation of the so-called substitution bias in the measurement of inflation. The aim of the article is to assess the impact of the level of innovativeness of a given country’s economy on the occurrence of the substitution effect. The empirical part of the article is based on basic innovation indices, i.e. the SII, IOI, and GII. The assessment of the relationship between the level of innovativeness and the scale of the substitution effect was carried out based on the methods of multidimensional statistical analysis (including cluster analysis, the PROFIT method).

Open access

Puteri Andika Sari and Wiendy Puspita Sari

Abstract

Micro, Small and Medium Enterprises (MSMEs) are flourishing in Indonesia and contributing greatly to Gross Domestic Product of Indonesia. This attracted the attention of many people to examine more about Micro SME and its development. The purpose of this study is to identify the variable forming firm performance with case studies on food MSMEs in Bandung city. This study tried to answer questions about the MSME performance improvement model of Bandung city. The method used is survey by distributing questionnaires to 40 MSMEs in Bandung. Testing of variable in this research by using Partial Least Square (PLS) test. The findings of the study revealed that firm performance model (MSMEs) has a significant influenced by entrepreneurial competency moderated by competitive scope. The managerial implication of this research is expected that the actors of MSMEs can improve their ability on financial knowledge and organize their business in order to grow and become big company in the future which can give contribution of bigger economic development to the country.

Open access

Ana Georgiana Călugărescu and Mihaela Preda

Abstract

Numerous specialist studies allow managers to find accessible answers on how to develop and increase the autonomy of educational establishments in the type of management model. Every school head has to have a clear vision of the school and of its connection with the society it is part of. The vision of the manager must be shared with both the institution’s staff and the local community. It should be pointed out that there is no effective school if the manager can’t express this vision with the rest of the people who come into contact with the unit. Vision is the starting point for a mission assigned to the school unit by its manager. In general, the mission of the school is to integrate each pupil in society, to continually improve the performance of the educational act in good conditions and to the required standards. The purpose of this article is to outline the new challenges of the modern world and to highlight effective management methods.

Open access

Lu Liu

Abstract

This study probes the causal link between renewable electrical consumption (REC) and economic growth (EG) in Romanian. In recent years, the development of renewable energy in Romania has achieved basic results, but it also faces many problems, such as funding, technical policies and so on. This paper reviews the development motivation, characteristics and main problems of renewable energy in Romania. And put forward strategies such as increasing investment in research and development, adapting to local conditions and sustainable development.

Open access

Shu-Han Chang and Chien-Ping Shih

Abstract

The advances in science and technology have benefited many industries. In recent years, we have witnessed the rapid development of financial technology. All of them worked hard in this area, such as Amazon, UPS, and Wal-Mart International. In China, leading e-commerce platforms such as Alibaba and Tencent actively provided services to SMEs in their ecosystems; Taiwan also make efforts to develop it. The emergence of networking account scientific and technological AMIS provides various payment companies, lending platform, financial robots. Although Taiwan’s innovation industry faces many restrictions on its development, it will still go through it. Therefore, Taiwan has continued to update laws and regulations related to financial technology. The latest rule “Financial Science and Technology Development and Innovation Experiments Regulations” regards the development of Taiwan’s financial technology. FinTech has gradually replaced the traditional financial service model. Through mobile payments, cloud platforms, and artificial intelligence, the technology industry has gradually penetrated into the financial industry. We are willing to make more progress in Taiwan’s financial technology to deepen the understanding of FinTech as a study.

Open access

Joanna Muszyńska and Ewa Wędrowska

Abstract

A formula of measures applied to assess the level of income inequality results from the intellectual basis on which this approach is founded. Our paper focuses on Generalized Entropy measures. The aim of our paper is two-fold. Firstly, it aims at presenting GE measures and discussing their properties, especially the property of additive decomposition. Secondly, the empirical aim is to assess the level of income inequality in Poland and to indicate its main determinants. In the study we use microdata obtained from EU-SILC that cover information about incomes received by individual household members in 2016. Five factors are chosen as the possible drivers of income inequality. The study proves the characteristics related to human capital are the most influential factors of income variability between households. The characteristics describing the composition of the household contribute to the overall level of inequality to asmaller extent.

Open access

Rinor Kurteshi

Abstract

This research looks at the current condition of human resources involved in the process of public sector innovation in Kosovo. This study is exploratory and a mixed methodology is used, while findings are compared and contrasted with the current state of knowledge. Findings clearly indicate that public sector institutions in Kosovo lack on adequate human resources that have obtained a university degree. Moreover, public sector institutions in Kosovo have shown resistance in involving staff in innovation teams and thus causing lack of motivation among staff to be creative in problem solving. Another interesting finding is the increase of trainings provided to staff on issues regarding implementation of innovations, however, the degree of trainings provided to staff is not satisfactory. Findings indicate that financial constraints were the reason behind the low degree of trainings provided to staff. The main areas where trainings were mostly provided include the development and implementation of new or improved communication methods and new or improved services. In addition to the findings, this research enriches and extends the current knowledge of human resources supporting innovation in the public sector domain. Finally, this is a unique contribution to Kosovar academics and public policy professionals.

Open access

Dorota Witkowska

Abstract

The main income determinants are: general economic situation, individual attributes of employees and characteristics of the workplace. However, there are also family duties which affect economic activity and wages, mostly in case of women who are the main care providers to children, the elderly, handicapped or sick. The aim of our research is to find out if the structure of the households influences the monthly remuneration of employees in Poland. The investigation consists in estimation econometric models which describe monthly remuneration on the basis of the microdata. Research is provided for the sample of employees regardless of gender, separately for male and female employees, and for women in three age classes. The analysis based on econometric models enables to find out that on average: (1) male employees earn significantly more than females, (2) married women earn less than unmarried ones while in case of men the situation is the opposite, (3) the motherhood penalty exists in Poland and (4) care providers for the elderly are mostly women, and care duties influence mostly remuneration received by women aged 25-54.