Todd J. Barry
This paper puts forth a new scholarly approach to trade negotiations, for practitioners of international agreements, or simply to business students attempting to understand Ricardian trade theory. The paper hypothesizes that matrices can provide a simpler conceptual framework for considering Ricardo’s comparative advantage, especially when multiple goods and multiple countries are involved, in order to determine which countries should produce which goods. Numerous theoretical examples are presented, singularly, and jointly, as are different possible flaws and assumptions, additional applications, and alternative uses of the matrices, such as employing matrices to increase production of certain goods needed during crises or shortages. The article also argues that “terms of trade” should not be “assumed” in trade models but be based upon indifference curves, and addresses other influencing factors such as neoclassical changes in utility or in production. Found valid, the paper applies this method of trade simplification to pressing international situations, the question of “Brexit,” the sobriquet for the United Kingdom’s effort to withdraw from the European Union, which creates interesting possibilities for new trade deals, and the renegotiation of the North American Free Trade Agreement (NAFTA). The conclusion conceptually compares bilateral and multilateral trade, singularly, and with all countries together.
The development of this true scourge in the whole world demands a more accurate knowledge and documentation on the emergence, development, operation, motivation that underlies terrorist actions, as well as a knowledge of the funding of these terrorist groups. Considering the fact that this scourge has existed since antiquity and the Middle Ages, so it has a true “history”, developed gradually in the 1700s, it has experienced a real “explosion” since 1968, reaching the peak in 2001, it is necessary that those entitled to know in depth this “phenomenon” and if they can not eradicate it, at least to unite their efforts at an international level and limit it as much as possible. At global level, there are sufficient determinants, but also reasons for this phenomenon to have a continuous development, and we are taking in consideration the continuous development of the armaments industry and the misguided policies of some governments.
The aim of the paper was to assess differentiation of the occurrence of households’ income affluence in Poland between subregions. An analysis was conducted using two-level logit models without explanatory variables (null model) and with explanatory variables at household level (random intercept model and random slope model). The variables were related to the characteristics of the household and its head. The conducted analysis allowed to state that the occurrence of affluence is differentiated between subregions in the null model as well as in the model with explanatory variables.
Jelena Jermolajeva, Tatiana Bogdanova and Svetlana Silchenkova
The article presents the results of the international study of the professional identity of schoolteachers of Russia and Latvia. In the study, the six component model of the content of the teacher professional identity (TPI) is used. According to this model, in 2017, the questionnaire “School Teacher Professional Identity” was created and international survey organized, in which 437 schoolteachers from Latvia and the Smolensk region of Russia participated. The aim of this article is to analyze the data of the two national samples for the 6th component of TPI: “Professionally Determined Social Behavior”. This behavior is not connected with the implementation of direct professional duties, but corresponds to the philosophy of the profession: taking up the mission of educating community, active involvement in social life, participation in formulation and solution of social problems having pedagogical aspects and unselfish professional help to those who need it. To process the data, statistical methods were used. On the whole, items of the component received relatively high scores in both national samples. Certain differences in the data of Latvian and Russian teachers as well as urban and rural subgroups of both countries are observed. High dispersion of data shown in this component indicates that the professionally determined social behavior is the most acute and controversial aspect of TPI; therefore, the elaboration of optimal ways and tools to strengthen TPI should be based on an in-depth study of social behavior of schoolteachers.
Elżbieta Roszko-Wójtowicz and Jacek Białek
The consumer price index (CPI) is acommon measure of inflation. Similarly to the harmonised index of consumer prices (HICP), it is determined using the Laspeyres index, thus data on the consumption of the basket of goods do not have to be current. The Laspeyres index, using weights only from the base period, may not reflect changes in consumer preferences that occurred in the studied year. This is the reason for the formation of the so-called substitution bias in the measurement of inflation. The aim of the article is to assess the impact of the level of innovativeness of a given country’s economy on the occurrence of the substitution effect. The empirical part of the article is based on basic innovation indices, i.e. the SII, IOI, and GII. The assessment of the relationship between the level of innovativeness and the scale of the substitution effect was carried out based on the methods of multidimensional statistical analysis (including cluster analysis, the PROFIT method).
This article deals with robust H∞ optimal control of the flight control systems of the small unmanned aerial vehicles (UAVs) in the presence of the plant disturbances and sensor noises. The rationales of the theory of H∞ controller synthesis are brought into a unique frame supporting design procedures being implemented. The paper focuses on numerical example of the synthesis of the controller of the flight control system of the small UAV.
Ioan Sabin Sopa and Marcel Pomohaci
Quality of sleep developed to be a much disputed subject in everyday life performance of men. Our study focuses on comparing two samples one of non-sportive (formed by 42 students’ age 19 ± 1.22 years) and one of professional athletes (formed by 45 sportive age between 18 ± 2.01 years). The main method used for analyzing the quality of sleep between the two samples of the research was the Athlete Sleep Screening Questionnaire (ASSQ) that is a tool that analyses sleep behaviors, identify disorder in sleeping routine and determine the frequency of difficulties with sleep before and after events, competitions or intense training programs.
The results of the study showed a statistically significant differences between the two samples in the number of hours slept at night (the experiment sample having 8 to 9 hours of sleep compared with the control sample that have 6 to 7 hours); also we found differences between the time needed to fall asleep (less than 15 min at the experiment group compared with 31-60 min at the control group); less problems at sleeping in the experiment group compared with the control group and that the athletes from the experiment group are waking earlier and are a morning kind of persons compared with the control group that are more active at evening; also found differences at the caffeine doses consumed and usage of electronic devices before sleep time (the experiment have less cases compared with the control group). So the general conclusion of the study was that the level of satisfaction regarding the quality of sleep is higher at the experiment sample compared with the control sample.
Mihai-Bogdan Alexandrescu and Marius Milandru
Permanent communication between bidders and consumers, who are usually spatially and temporarily separated, is a necessity, because prompt and correct information stimulates demand, directs it towards certain products and influences rational consumption, causes changes in the mentalities and attitudes of potential buyers, which will be reflected in the increase in the volume of sold goods and implicitely of the profit, as the sole purpose of the producer. The marketing communication system is the general framework in which promotion takes the form of the promotional mix, based on the four promotional tools: advertising, personal sales, promotion sales and public relations, aimed at presenting the organization, its products and services, at raising awareness of potential customers, and of course, at increasing sales to get more profit.
A country’s qualification structure that meets the needs of the labour market and properly skilled professionals at different levels of qualification are the objectives targeted by each country, region and entity. Competencies demanded on the labour market determine the competitiveness of a person, entity and the whole country. In order to train professionals to better meet the labour market needs, solution formulas for the problems are sought in the field of infrastructure improvements, system management and other areas. This article analyses the opportunities for enhancing match of skills safeguarded by the national occupational standards in Lithuania, including the analysis of progress, problems and solutions.