The aim of the paper was to assess differentiation of the occurrence of households’ income affluence in Poland between subregions. An analysis was conducted using two-level logit models without explanatory variables (null model) and with explanatory variables at household level (random intercept model and random slope model). The variables were related to the characteristics of the household and its head. The conducted analysis allowed to state that the occurrence of affluence is differentiated between subregions in the null model as well as in the model with explanatory variables.
Elżbieta Roszko-Wójtowicz and Jacek Białek
The consumer price index (CPI) is acommon measure of inflation. Similarly to the harmonised index of consumer prices (HICP), it is determined using the Laspeyres index, thus data on the consumption of the basket of goods do not have to be current. The Laspeyres index, using weights only from the base period, may not reflect changes in consumer preferences that occurred in the studied year. This is the reason for the formation of the so-called substitution bias in the measurement of inflation. The aim of the article is to assess the impact of the level of innovativeness of a given country’s economy on the occurrence of the substitution effect. The empirical part of the article is based on basic innovation indices, i.e. the SII, IOI, and GII. The assessment of the relationship between the level of innovativeness and the scale of the substitution effect was carried out based on the methods of multidimensional statistical analysis (including cluster analysis, the PROFIT method).
Joanna Muszyńska and Ewa Wędrowska
A formula of measures applied to assess the level of income inequality results from the intellectual basis on which this approach is founded. Our paper focuses on Generalized Entropy measures. The aim of our paper is two-fold. Firstly, it aims at presenting GE measures and discussing their properties, especially the property of additive decomposition. Secondly, the empirical aim is to assess the level of income inequality in Poland and to indicate its main determinants. In the study we use microdata obtained from EU-SILC that cover information about incomes received by individual household members in 2016. Five factors are chosen as the possible drivers of income inequality. The study proves the characteristics related to human capital are the most influential factors of income variability between households. The characteristics describing the composition of the household contribute to the overall level of inequality to asmaller extent.
The main income determinants are: general economic situation, individual attributes of employees and characteristics of the workplace. However, there are also family duties which affect economic activity and wages, mostly in case of women who are the main care providers to children, the elderly, handicapped or sick. The aim of our research is to find out if the structure of the households influences the monthly remuneration of employees in Poland. The investigation consists in estimation econometric models which describe monthly remuneration on the basis of the microdata. Research is provided for the sample of employees regardless of gender, separately for male and female employees, and for women in three age classes. The analysis based on econometric models enables to find out that on average: (1) male employees earn significantly more than females, (2) married women earn less than unmarried ones while in case of men the situation is the opposite, (3) the motherhood penalty exists in Poland and (4) care providers for the elderly are mostly women, and care duties influence mostly remuneration received by women aged 25-54.
Kateryna Berezka and Olha Kovalchuk
Many of the problems that the world faces today appeared as the result of unstable development. Global climate change, resource depletion, space debris, poverty, inequality, and threats to global security are the main but not the only challenges for modern humanity. The important issue in studying the problems of sustainable development of the countries in the world is the development of strategies that would give an opportunity to avoid environmental and social catastrophes. The correspondence analysis is used to identify the relationship between the Happy Planet Index (which is an aggregate indicator of achievements in the key aspects of human development, such as life duration and quality, distribution uniformity, access to knowledge, and preservation of environment) and Gross National Income (one of the basic metrics of the population welfare level). The analysis led to the conclusion that the income level of the population is not the main factor in assessing the level of sustainable development of acountry. The obtained results can give important and useful information for social institutions and politicians.
In the light of Schumpeter’s pioneering vision of economic evolution the innovations and innovative entrepreneurs play a fundamental role in the economic development. However, imitations and producers-imitators are essential in diffusing and adapting innovations into the economic exchange processes. In this context the aim of the paper is to model and analyse some properties of imitative mechanisms appearing within the economic evolution. Innovative and imitative mechanisms defined in Hurwicz’s conceptual apparatus are analysed in the economy determined by the use of topological tools usually applied in the general equilibrium theory. As a result it is shown that, in the economy under study, imitative mechanisms are the reasons for and the consequences of innovative mechanisms as well as that the innovative and imitative processes can coexist in the framework of the same innovative mechanism. Moreover it is proven that under some assumptions equilibrium in the economic system analysed can be obtained as a consequence of either of an innovative or an imitative mechanism.
The aim of this paper is to identify and assess, on a comparative, intra-country basis, the existing practices and developments in central bank accountability for financial stability, from a new-macroprudential policy-perspective. The paper aims to contribute to the ongoing debate on institutional arrangements for macroprudential policy. The debate as to whether the combination of monetary policy and financial supervision within one institution is not new. Nevertheless it is far from being resolved. The paper points to the need to establish clear, formal and robust mechanisms of central bank involvement in the process of executing macroprudential policy, at least as a data collection and analyzing institution.
Maciej Cieślukowski and Mihai Mutascu
From October 2017 the European Union envisages the abolition of the so-called sugar quotas and minimum prices for buying sugar beet. As a consequence of these changes the sugar levies paid by the sugar factories of the Member States will cease to apply. The article identifies the fiscal effects of the abolition of these levies. The European Union and the Member States will lose some of their budget revenues. The structure of Member States’ burdens for GNI payments will also change as well as their operating balance relative to the EU budget. Through the change Poland will gain, whereas some large net contributors will lose, i.e. the Netherlands, Sweden and the United Kingdom.
Richard J. Sweeney
Court packing greatly threatens democracy. This paper examines, compares and draws conclusions from two attempts: The PiS government is near to packing Polish courts; President Roosevelt tried but failed to pack the U.S. Supreme Court in 1937. In most democracies a head of government with a legislative majority and strong party control can pack courts, giving complete control. The United States escaped; Roosevelt lacked complete party control. Poland is unlucky; PiS is strongly controlled. Peaceful domestic protest is necessary, but Poland’s hope is from EU-level institutional pressure, supported by major democracies, to reverse packing and prevent further seizure of power.