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Financial aspects of research and development policy in the European Union

Summary

In the article the author has attempted to realise the following goals:

1) identifying and critical assessment of the share of expenditure on research and development (R&D) in the gross domestic product (GDP) borne by business entities concentrated in four sectors (enterprises, government, higher education and private non-profit institutions) and jointly in all sectors. This meter is treated as an indirect measure of the level of managerial activity in shaping the research and development policy,

2) checking the thesis that R&D expenditure are changeable and differ in the particular Member States and does not give a clear positive picture of the systematic and dynamic growth of research and development activity in these countries.

The article was developed using the following research methods: critical-cognitive analysis of the literature; statistical and comparative analysis of the “Eurostat” empirical material; the projection.

The statistical and comparative analysis of the secondary empirical material “Eurostat” illustrating the share of expenditure on research and development in the gross domestic product was used to check the thesis. The results of the analysis confirm the rightness of the research thesis.

Open access
Innovative Behavior of the Poznań Agglomeration Inhabitants in the Transport Services Market

Summary

The development of information and communication technologies, including in particular the modern development of mobile technologies, has an undeniable impact on people’s lives and, consequently, on consumers’ market behaviour. The growing popularity and capabilities of mobile devices, as well as the increasing availability of mobile Internet access, mean that in many markets companies are redefining their business models, in which the activities conducted via the Internet play an increasingly important role. This is particularly visible on the market of individual and public transport services, where thanks to mobile devices, as well as in consistency with trends in consumer market behaviours and the development of cities in accordance with the smart city concept, for several years now we can observe the emergence of innovative alternatives to traditional forms of transport. The pace of appearance of product innovations on the market depends, of course, to a large extent on the level of acceptance of innovation by consumers. The aim of the article is to determine the degree of innovativeness of the inhabitants of the Poznań agglomeration in the use of transport solutions available in Poznań. The research part presents the results of own research conducted in 2019 on a sample of 795 respondents. They showed that the inhabitants of the Poznań agglomeration are not afraid to use product innovations on the market of transport services and use them to a greater extent than in the case of the general population.

Open access
Reasons of Polish young potential employees’ interest In a university as the employer vr perceiving its employees

Summary

The article has a theoretical-empirical character. Its main goal was to identify reasons of young potential employees’ interest in working at a university. To prepare the theoretical part, the method of cognitive-critical analysis of world literature on marketing, management and HRM was applied. The results of this analysis show an existing cognitive gap and a research gap in the scope of considerations about reasons of interest of the mentioned group of employees in a university as the employer. Striving for reducing both gaps some empirical researches were conducted using the questionnaire method to gather the primary data which were analyzed statistically using the method of exploratory factor analysis, Kruskal-Wallis test, etc. The obtained results made it possible to check three research hypotheses. The possibility to perform a satisfying job was not the key reason for the respondents’ interest in working at a university. The internal structure of reasons for the respondents’ interest in a university as the employer was different for the following two groups: 1/people who think that university’s employees are perceived in Poland better than those who work in other organizations; 2/people who think that university’s employees are perceived in Poland as well as those who work in other organizations. The way of perceiving employees of an university was a feature statistically significantly differentiating the reasons of the respondents’ interest in starting work at the university only in the case of high social prestige and high wages.

Open access
Will the use of Virtual Reality Lead to a Revolution in Marketing Communication?

Summary

A contemporary consumer is a challenge for marketing specialists. The analysis of the conducted research shows that only a well-constructed marketing message, using new technologies will be a key element of effective marketing communication. There is a growing interest in the use of virtual and augmented reality on the market.

The aim of the work is to analyze the possibilities of using innovative tools, based on virtual and augmented reality in marketing communication. The source basis of the study is available literature on the subject, secondary sources, own analyzes and research and studies carried out by foreign research institutes.

The paper presents the results of authorial research carried out in 2018 using the CAPI method, as well as self-audit of marketing activities using VR and AR based on the SERVQUAL model. The results of the study indicate limited use of VR and AR. It should also be emphasized that these results are not representative, but point to a relationship that is worth exploring on a larger research group.

Open access
Are Cryptocurrencies Good Investments?

Abstract

This paper provides a comprehensive overview of cryptocurrencies, including the origin of cryptocurrencies, how cryptocurrencies operate, and the current situation of cryptocurrencies. In addition, we also provide the performance comparison of major cryptocurrencies with the performance of the stock market indexes. All the cryptocurrencies exhibit higher average returns and volatility than the stock market indexes, which appeals to risk-taking investors. We then perform additional analysis on the determinants of cryptocurrencies returns. We show that major fundamental variables are less likely to affect the returns of cryptocurrencies except for the S&P 500 index returns and the exchange rates between U.S. dollars and Euros.

Open access
Beyond Budgeting – A Fair Alternative for Management Control? - Examining the Relationships between Beyond Budgeting and Organizational Justice Perceptions

Abstract

Since the seminal work of Chris Argyris research has realized that the design of Management Control Systems (MCS) has a significant impact on the social framework of an organization. This influence has been discussed in literature for decades. But there has been no holistic alternative for budget related MCS until the development of Beyond Budgeting (BB). Even though BB proponents claim that BB empowers organizations to become more adaptable, efficient and fair and is able to reduce unethical behaviors, BB has not been adopted by a considerable amount of organizations. One reason for this conservative attitude of organizations might be the lack of a framework that makes it possible to assess the possible advantages of BB for a specific organization. Current research suggests evaluating MCS in terms of their impact on organizational justice perceptions. Building on these new empirical findings, our paper tries to contribute to a better understanding of the potential advantages and disadvantages of BB by assessing the impact of BB characteristics on organizational justice perceptions. After identifying BB core characteristics, these characteristics are assessed regarding their impact on organizational justice perceptions. Partial least squares regression is applied to evaluate the relationship between BB core characteristics and organizational justice perceptions. Our results suggest that applying BB might enhance informational and interpersonal justice perceptions and therefore be beneficial for knowledge-based organizations.

Open access
The CAC 40 Index’s Reaction to Terrorist Attacks: The Case of Charlie Hebdo

Abstract

Over the last decades, terrorism has become a global phenomenon to which every society is exposed from time to time. Terrorist attacks can have many economic consequences that may affect a number of sectors, including the capital market. The main goal of this paper is to examine the reaction of the CAC40 index to one terrorist attack, mainly “Charlie Hebdo” using an event study methodology. By calculating the abnormal returns and the cumulative abnormal returns in the event period, the results obtained show no significant abnormal returns on the day of the terrorist attack suggesting that the market had directly absorbed the effect of the attack. Thus, the findings suggest that the French market is semi-strong efficient. Investors can rely neither on past information nor on publicly available information to make abnormal profits.

Open access
The Consumer of University Educational Services – A Central Element of Educational Marketing

Abstract

The marketing of educational services has become both a priority and a challenge, taking into account the technological changes that have arisen from the aspect of the tools and teaching methods used, as well as from the point of view of the requirements on the market manifested by the bearers of labor demand and supply. In addition, the opening and internationalization of these services has led to an increase in competition in this area, which forces universities to attach greater importance to educational marketing activities. From the point of view of the study of the behavior of the consumer of university educational services, the approach is even more challenging as the offer of educational services presupposes the rendering of an inexpensive, unstable, perishable and extremely variable service in terms of diversity, which requires an extremely complex analysis of the variables that influence the behavior of the “consumer” student, as well as from the point of view of the purchasing decision process, as a result of the action of these factors. In this context, the present paper aims to analyze the necessity of applying specific educational marketing tools, methods and techniques, especially of university marketing, not only from the perspective of the promotional component, which has a leading role in this field, but also starting from to the analysis of the peculiarities of the behavior of the consumer of educational services as a beneficiary.

Open access
Consumer Resistance to Innovation in the Fashion Industry

Abstract

Innovation is considered an essential point of market competitivity and industrial dynamics. However, there is one main reason that delays or inhibits the innovation spread, the consumer resistance to innovation. Innovation resistance of the consumers has undergone less consideration to describe and forecast adoption-related behaviour. The actual paper develops and empirically validates a scale that intends to measure consumers’ inclination to resist innovation that emerge from people’s tendency to resist changes and manifest status-quo satisfaction when it’s related to fashion items. The scale describes a measure of the inclination to the status-quo option, even if people are satisfied with existing fashion items or with the degree of innovation in the fashion industry.

Open access
Digital Component of People's Quality of Life in Russia

Abstract

The term “people's quality of life” has not been given any widespread explanation in the context of society digital transformation. There are six attributes specified to characterize digital component of people's quality of life. Basing on official statistics data, subindices for the corresponding data blocks were computed. A mixed method to estimate the digital component of people's quality of life was used. Also, the Russian index of digital component of people's quality of life was defined for the whole country and for its federal districts. The results of computations allowed to characterize the changes in subindices within blocks and in the integral index covering eight federal districts and in Russia in the whole for the period of 2015–2017. Positive dynamics of the Russian index of digital component of people's quality of life was revealed with some fluctuations for different federal districts.

Open access