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Decision Making in Psychiatric Reform: A Case Study of the Czech Experience

Abstract

This study examines the initial impact of a broadly participatory planning process in the Czech Republic during 2016–2017, aimed at both reducing inpatient care and expanding community mental health systems, on policy and programmatic decision making. A central focus of the study involves the trade-offs between and efforts to integrate shared decision making with evidence-based planning methods within the context of a national psychiatric reform strategy, particularly one involving a former Soviet bloc state.

Given the uniqueness of the Czech experience, an exploratory case study methodology is used, one involving ten interviews with key informants and examination of a wide variety of documents. Results include the development of broad new decision and oversight structures, and the initial implementation of community mental health services. The nation faces some of the same trade-offs found elsewhere, such as in the United States, between an inclusive participatory process, and one that systematically incorporates empirical rational and evidence and best practices within bounded parameters.

Implications for new psychiatric deinstitutionalization initiatives are identified, including development of a national mental health authority, a professional workforce, new funding strategies, multi-level service coordination, mechanisms to assure transparency, among others.

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The fuzzy concept of collaborative governance: A systematic review of the state of the art

Abstract

This article contributes to the consolidation and synthesis of scholarship on collaborative governance by expanding our knowledge of how the term is used in the academic literature and policy documents in a range of European countries. It adds value to the existing reviews of the field by conducting a systematic literature review on a corpus of over 700 article abstracts and a traditional literature review identifying five key analytical dimensions. The article also provides an exploratory analysis of grey literature hitherto outside the purview of researchers and considers the linguistic and cultural connotations that alter the meaning of the term when translated into new contexts in ten EU/EFTA countries. Findings indicate heterogeneity and fuzziness in the way the concept is used. The article argues that explicit positions with respect to five main analytical dimensions and taking into account the national connotations that the term carries across political systems would inject more clarity into the academic discourse. This, in turn, will help policymakers to make informed use of the concept, especially in multi-national policy-making arenas.

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The influence of age factors on the reform of the public service of Ukraine

Abstract

It had been established that the heads of institutions should form teams of workers of different generations with different expectations and methods of work in the context of reforming the public service. The periods of forming generations have been set on the basis of literary sources, such as: Generation X (the period up to 1980); Generation Y (from 1981 to 1996); and Generation Z (after 1997). The most important criteria which form the characteristics of public servants have been singled out, and common and distinctive traits of Generations X, Y, and Z have been systematized. The distribution of the number of public servants in Ukraine has been analyzed by gender, age and the category of position. Based on the use of correlation-regression analysis, the tendency of changes in the share of state servants of Ukraine by age category up to 2020 was investigated. This made it possible to confirm the suggested hypothesis of the dependence of the effective reform of the Ukrainian public service on the effective interaction and cooperation of all generations of public servants. The main requirements for a public institution in which the employees of the new generation will work have been systematized.

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Conditions of Economic Efficiency of Industrial Enterprises in the Enterprise Life Cycle Stages

Summary

Subject and purpose of work: The purpose of the study is to determine the variables determining the level of synthetic measure of economic efficiency in listed companies of the industry sector as part of their enterprise life cycle.

Materials and methods: The article uses data from annual unitary financial statements of industrial enterprises according to the classification of the Warsaw Stock Exchange and data describing the macroeconomic situation of the state economy. The research period covered the years 1999-2012. In order to examine which factors determine the level of economic efficiency at each stage of the life cycle of enterprises, estimation of econometric models was carried out.

Results: In the models obtained for companies in the growth and maturity stage, statistically significant determinants were obtained only in the field of internal factors. In the models estimated for companies in the stages of launch, shake-out and decline, statistically significant conditions were identified, both in terms of external factors and in the area of internal factors.

Conclusions: A comprehensive assessment of the conditions for the level of economic efficiency of enterprises should take into account both factors dependent on the enterprise (microeconomic) as well as those determined by the environment (macroeconomic) and beyond its control. It is therefore necessary for managers of enterprises to have extensive and up-to-date knowledge of factors and conditions that are significant in shaping the level of economic efficiency.

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Direct Foreign Investment in Peripheral Regions: A Case Study of the Lublin Voivodship

Summary

Subject and purpose of work: The subject of analysis and evaluation are foreign direct investments (FDI) in Poland with particular emphasis on the Lublin Voivodship as a peripheral region. The aim of the paper is to present the investment attractiveness of the voivodship, the state of investment and ways to enhance the investment attractiveness of the region.

Materials and methods: This paper is based on statistical data from the Central Statistical Office (GUS), the National Bank of Poland (NBP) and other institutions, as well as published literature of this topic.

Results: This paper presents theoretical foundations of foreign investments, characteristics of the inflow of foreign direct investments to Poland in the years 2000-2017, their origin and directions of their use and distribution in the country. FDI is presented in detail in Lublin Voivodship, which is considered to be a peripheral region of Poland and the European Union.

Conclusions: FDI inflow to Poland was uneven in time, and investments were concentrated in the Masovian Voivodship and a few other voivodships of Western and Central Poland. Lublin Voivodship, despite activities increasing its investment attractiveness, still has unused opportunities for application of foreign investments.

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Old-Age Pension Insurance in ZUS and KRUS in the Context of the Insured and Public Finances

Summary

Subject and purpose of work: The subject of this paper was to assess the old-age pension insurance in ZUS (Social Insurance Institution) and KRUS (Agricultural Social Insurance Fund) from the perspective of a person insured and the public finances. The purpose of the study was to calculate the difference in saving efficiency of the insured in ZUS and KRUS.

Materials and methods: The study uses literature in the field of social security, legal acts, mass statistics data, and statistical data of KRUS and ZUS. Descriptive and financial analysis methods were used. The results of the study were presented using the tabular method.

Results: As a result of the analysis, it was found that currently the income adequacy of old-age pension insurance in Poland is about 50%. It is much lower than what is considered optimal, which is estimated at 70%. The share of subsidies for old-age pension insurance in budget expenditure in Poland is growing and in 2018 this ratio was 16.16%.

Conclusions: The efficiency of saving in old-age pension insurance in KRUS is over 6 times higher than the efficiency of old-age pension saving in ZUS.

Open access
The Place of State Higher Vocational Schools (SHVS) from the Lublin Voivodeship in Local and Regional Development Strategies

Summary

Subject and purpose of work: The objective of this elaboration is to specify the place of state higher vocational schools from the Lublin voivodeship in development strategies of various territorial levels.

Materials and methods: The method of document research was applied within this elaboration, which consists of analysing the content of strategies and development plans. Within the study the induction method was also used (stage of literary studies), analysis and synthesis (stage of empirical research), deduction method (conceptual stage).

Results: References to state vocational schools occur more frequently in diagnostic segments than the programming ones of these strategic documents. Territorial self-government units (TSU) of the Chełmski subregion consider to a larger degree and thus, appreciate the functioning and public functions of vocational schools than it is the case with the Bialski or Zamojski subregions.

Conclusions: Within the regional strategic documents of the Lublin Voivodeship, statements referring to higher education refer rather to general matters. Within the local strategic documents, one may more frequently encounter more direct and literal references to the methods of possibilities of cooperation and co-action between TSU and business with state vocational schools for the benefit of local territorial arrangements.

Open access
Quantitative Changes of Endogenous Factors Affecting the Economic Development of the Mazowieckie Voivodeship in 2004-2017

Summary

Subject and purpose of work: The article presents a quantitative change of endogenous factors affecting the development of the Mazowieckie Voivodeship in 2004-2017.

Materials and methods: The research uses a comparative analysis based on the data of the Central Statistical Office included in the Local Data Bank and the Statistical Yearbooks of the Mazowieckie Voivodeship.

Results: The results of the research show that in 2004-2017 the economic state of the Mazowieckie Voivodeship have significantly improved due to, the expansion of the transportation infrastructure and significant resources of well-educated human capital of the society.

Conclusions: To a large extent, the pace of development of the Mazowieckie Voivodeship is impacted by the capital of Poland located there. Other factors favouring the dynamic development of the voivodeship are high density of roads and railway, along with well-educated human capital.

Open access