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Demand and Characteristics of Customers of Reusable Products in Slovenia

Abstract

The main aim of the paper is to analyse whether a demand for reusable products in Slovenia exists and to identify customers’ characteristics in terms of their gender, age, income, education and employment status. We used survey data to investigate what share of customers in Slovenia are buying and are willing to buy reusable products. Furthermore, we investigate whether there are differences between customers who are buying and who are not buying reusable products with regard to selected demographics (gender, age, income, education and employment status). The findings show that more than half of customers in Slovenia are already buying reusable products. The results of selected characteristics of individuals indicate that there are differences among buyers and non-buyers of reusable products only with regard to gender. The paper contributes to the literature on the demand for reusable products and gives better insights into the characteristics of customers buying reusable products.

Open access
Development of Trade Relations of Bosnia and Hercegovina with Slovenia: Different Aspects and Characteristics

Abstract

The paper is aimed at identifying characteristics of trade relations of Bosnia and Herzegovina (BiH) with the Republic of Slovenia (Slovenia) in order to contribute to determining the position of BiH in its bilateral trade. The foreign trade analysis has been performed in the context of the changing trade regime between the two countries, thereby including both institutional and functional aspects of bilateral trade relations development. Different trade indicators have been calculated and interpreted for the period of 2003-2017 and/or for selected years which were identified by a change in the institutional regulations of mutual trade flows. The research results indicate increasing trade intensity between the two countries, with almost balanced export and import flows and with prevailing inter-industry trade. The trade performance of BiH has significantly improved, with increasing intra-industry specialization and trade. However, the export structure and comparative advantage pattern are not favourable toward BiH, which points to the need for improving the country’s position in its trade with Slovenia.

Open access
Infrastructure Indices: Comparative Analysis of Performance, Risk and Representation of Global Listed Proxies

Abstract

Faced with historically low interest rates, investors are looking further into illiquid assets such as infrastructure in search of alternative sources of income, better diversification and a long-term investment perspective. This paper analyzes the key performance and risk characteristics of the EDHECinfra global unlisted infrastructure equity index when compared to the main global listed infrastructure indices during the 2001-2018 period. The descriptive statistics method is applied to determine the representation of the benchmarks commonly used by investors considering infrastructure investments. For the purpose of the market beta analysis, the MSCI World index is also used as a global equities proxy in a linear regression model.

Listed infrastructure is often considered as an income-yielding and defensive equity strategy that provides a liquid proxy for alternative assets (e.g., infrastructure). However, the paper results indicate that the net effect of investing in listed infrastructure remains questionable, even unknown. Recent empirical findings demonstrate divergent stands on benchmarking infrastructure. The high correlation of the main listed infrastructure indices with the broad equity index MSCI World and the inconsistency of research results thus far suggest that infrastructure is an ill-defined investment category within the listed infrastructure space with lacking reliable and useful benchmarking. The commonly used and far-reaching classification of companies with broad industrial nature and business activities that are less relevant to infrastructure may affect the overall representation of the legitimate characteristics of the infrastructure asset class amid the growing enthusiasm among investors.

Open access
Labour Supply and Inequality Effects of In-Work Benefits: Evidence from Serbia

Abstract

Low labour market participation, together with the high effective tax wedge at low wage levels, create a fertile ground for the introduction of the in-work benefits (IWB) in Serbia. Our paper provides an ex-ante evaluation of the two IWB schemes, directed at stimulating the labour supply and more equal income distribution. The methodological approach combines the tax-and-benefit microsimulation model with the discrete labour supply model. Our results show that both individual and family-based IWB schemes would considerably boost labour market participation, although family-based benefits would have disincentivizing effects for the secondary earners in couples. Most of the behavioural changes take place among the poorest individuals, with significant redistributive effects.

Open access
The Structure of Design Orientation and its Relationship with Market Orientation

Abstract

Although market orientation has been investigated in numerous studies, its complex relationship with design orientation lacks research attention, especially in countries with transitional economies. Therefore, existing models of market orientation (MO) and design orientation (DO) have been investigated. The research has been executed in several stages, combining qualitative and quantitative methods. In the first, qualitative stage, a series of face-to-face in-depth interviews were conducted. In the second, quantitative stage, an Internet survey was conducted among managers and CEOs from Croatian companies in different industries. Partial Least Square and Structural Equation Modelling analyses were conducted to examine the relationships between variables of MO and DO. Results confirm the positive relationship between design orientation and market orientation. Further, results also confirm sub-hypotheses that customer orientation and strategic marketing are positively related to all dimensions of design orientation. The model could have implications for marketers, designers and managers in practice. Both concepts, MO and DO, are very complex and multidimensional, so it was not possible to investigate all the aspects of the constructs. Another limitation of the study was the sample size, as a result of a low response rate as well as a relatively high drop-out rate. The research contributes to theory highlighting the role of design as an important element of market orientation.

Open access
Agile Time Management as an Innovation in an Enterprise

Abstract

The study presents a new innovative approach to the accepted principle of agile enterprise management by using the method of rationalization of the structure of administrative and office work (DZA). Agile enterprise management focused on minimizing costs induces permanent necessity to look for new methods and techniques to achieve the assumed cost targets. Contemporary enterprises have access to a wide range of activities and instruments affecting the formation of costs while running their business. In connection with the above, a research question was posed in the study; how to implement the concept of agile enterprise management based on methods of rationalization of the structure of administrative and office work and lean management? The aim of the paper is to learn and evaluate the applied method of analysis of run times in the system of administrative and office work (DZA Dürchlaufzeitenanalyse) in the context of agile management of the enterprise. The study indicates the advantages and disadvantages of implementing this concept for the enterprise, thus the paper bridges the gap between theory and practice in the selection of instruments to realize of the concept of agile business management. The applied research method is literature studies and descriptive analysis in the field of application of the method of minimizing time of runs. Descriptive analysis was developed based on an example of the activity of a chemical industry enterprise operating in Poland. The research issues are important and up-to-date due to the constant need to maintain cost discipline in the enterprise and the implementation of innovative approaches to seek ways to reduce costs.

Open access
Aspects of the Evolution of the Romanian Tourists’ Preferences Concerning the Domestic Tourist Destinations

Abstract

Tourist services represent a category of services in which the inseparability of production and consumption, the inability to be storable, the immateriality, and last but not least non-durability, induces in tourism management a number of peculiarities and difficulties. Under these circumstances the development of medium-term strategies involves long-term studies regarding on the one hand the developments and characteristics of the demand, and on the other hand the tourist potential analysis at regional and local level. Although in the past 20 years there has been tremendous growth of on-line booking made by household users, the tour operators agencies as well as those with sales activity continue to offer the specific services for a large number of tourists, that number, in the case of domestic tourism, increased by 1.6 times in case of the tour operators and by 4.44 times in case of the agencies with sales activity. At the same time, there have been changes in the preferences of tourists regarding their holiday destinations in Romania. Started on these considerations, paper based on a logistic model, examines the evolution of the probabilities and scores corresponding to the way the Romanian tourists spend their holidays on the types of tourism agencies, actions and tourist areas in Romania.

Open access
Dashboard – Control and Pilot Instrument in the Romanian Patrimonial Entities

Abstract

Assess the performance of a patrimonial entity, its financial position and its change, the degree of risk in an economic and financial environment - socially dynamic, requires information far beyond the scope of financial-accounting information. Therefore, it is necessary to complete the financial data provided by the financial statements with the information on the technical and human potential (equipment quality, modernization, qualification of employees, level of labor productivity, etc.), commercial potential (quality of products / services and distribution network, price level, etc.), the intensity of competition, the position of the entity on the market, the image of the entity and its products / services, etc. All this information can be synthesized on responsibility boards (technical and production, human resources, trade-supply / sales / marketing, etc.) in a dashboard, which is a synoptic, legible and interpretable instrument, carried out with a certain frequency, which highlights the significant deviations between the results achieved and the fixed objectives, in order to ensure the necessary corrections for the good performance of the activity. This communication aims to highlight the results of the research on the importance of the dashboard as a control and pilotage tool for Romanian patrimonial entities.

Open access
Electricity Supply and Economic Diversification in Nigeria (1981-2016)

Abstract

The study examined the impact of electricity supply on economic diversification in Nigeria, using time series data from 1981 to 2016. The study employed descriptive analysis and Autoregressive Distributed Lag (ARDL) techniques. The Augmented Dickey-Fuller unit root test showed that the variables are integrated of different orders.

The result from the Bounds co-integration test to show the presence of a long-run relationship among the variables was inconclusive. The short run (ARDL) model, however, indicated a positive insignificant relationship between electricity supply and economic diversification in Nigeria. The findings of the study revealed that the electricity supply had not played a fundamental role in enhancing economic diversification in Nigeria.

The study, therefore, recommended that for Nigeria to drive economic diversification through electricity supply, the government should fix the electricity supply problem which can be achieved by short-term action to reduce technical faults through maintenance of the transmission and distribution infrastructure or long-term interventions to expand generating capacity.

Open access
Human Capital Development and Macroeconomic Performance in Nigeria: An Autoregressive Distributed Lag (ARDL) Approach

Abstract

While developed and most developing nations have seen the need and continue to invest heavily in the development and training of her manpower as shown by huge budgetary allocations to education and health, Nigeria continues to play politics with her human capital development policy which has been poor and only been effective on paper despite the huge outlay of human capital available at our disposal. This study therefore examined the impact of human capital development on the macroeconomic performance of Nigeria. Using autoregressive distributed lagged model, the study proxied human capital development using government expenditure on education, government expenditure on health, secondary school enrolment rate, and school enrolment rate at tertiary level, while per capita GDP was used as proxy variable for measuring macroeconomic performance.

The results of the estimated short and long run ARDL models indicated, an insignificant and negative relationship between human capital development and gross domestic product per capita (GDPPC) in the short run. Another result of this study is that, only tertiary enrolment rate (TER) has a significant and positive impact on gross domestic product per capita (GDPPC). This finding was an indication of relatively good but insufficient efforts by government to boost human capital. The study concluded that while human capital development is crucial for accelerated macroeconomic performance, government efforts aimed at boosting human capital has had a depressing effect on macroeconomic performance. On the strength of this, the study recommended that government and economic policy makers in Nigeria should place greater emphasis on human capital development.

Open access