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Open access

Tomasz Adamowicz

Summary

Subject and purpose of work: The article deals with the issue of risk mainly in banking activity. Different definitions of risk were reviewed as tools for risk management in banks and for regulatory activities by institutions. Materials and methods: The research material was taken from the subject literature and official documents of financial market institutions - international organizations, as well as foreign and domestic financial institutions. They were mainly legal acts, standards and guidelines/recommendations. Particular attention was paid to documents published by banking supervision authorities. Results: As a result of the study, the multiplicity of concepts and approaches were found to define and identify banking risks as the categorizations presented by regulators seemed to be a standard to apply in risk management practices. Conclusions: Among the risk categorization used by banks, the leading ones have been presented by supervisory authorities. Defining the types of risk in operations should be the first stage of the internal risk management process which is necessary for banks’ survival. Ensuring high quality of the implementation of the first stage determines the efficiency and effectiveness of the entire process. The decisive requirements set by European and national regulators with regard to banks’ application of risk categorization as part of the risk management system contributed to mitigating the phenomena related to the global financial crisis among banks in Europe.

Open access

Anna Irene De Luca, Nathalie Iofrida, Giovanni Gulisano and Alfio Strano

Abstract

Cooperation activities between Local Action Groups (LAGs) have been introduced into EU LEADER (Liaison Entre Actions de Développement de l’Économie Rurale) initiative to provide rural areas the opportunity to exchange experiences and best practices, as well as to realize common activities by pooling human and financial resources. The main purposes are to overcome isolation and add value to local development strategies. The benefits of cooperation are widely recognized but, undeniably, it can be also a difficult and time-consuming process. For this reason, evaluation is a necessary tool to measure the success of cooperation and to help actors address their strategies for the future. In this paper, an evaluation methodology is proposed and applied to an EU LEADER+ case study, the ‘Integrated Project for Rural Tourism: Environment and Qualified Hospitality’, a transnational cooperation experience led by LAG Aspromar, based in the province of Reggio Calabria, Southern Italy. Quantitative and qualitative data have been collected through the integration of three typical methods of social research: two techniques based on surveys, namely interviews with privileged actors, and a semi-structured questionnaire, and a technique based on non-survey data and the study of documents. Results can be useful to highlight pros and cons of the management of a cooperation project and to stimulate projects’ leaders on activating improvement processes.

Open access

Alejandro López González and María Jesús González-González

Abstract

The third demographic transition, barely mentioned by some authors and implicit for others, refers to changes in the demographic structures of the most developed countries promoted by the most recent migratory flows, with repercussions in aspects such as age structure or the composition of the labour market. The concept of the third demographic transition revolves around the increasing presence of foreigners, many of whom take up jobs that nationals reject, as well as other more skilled posts. Using the panel data methodology, we try to explain the third demographic dividend whose impact can be seen in the labour market. The results enable us to conclude that the foreign worker differential puts downward pressure on salaries, which affects other groups. If workers are available and policies are constructive, this leads to positive results and social wealth.

Open access

Marta Pisarek, Jadwiga Lechowska, Zbigniew W. Czerniakowski and Jadwiga Topczewska

Summary

Subject and purpose of work: The aim of the study was to evaluate activities of farms located in the Czarnorzecko-Strzyżowski Landscape Park according to the principles of sustainable development.

Materials and methods: Survey research was carried out in the Korczyna commune among randomly selected farm owners at the turn of 2014 and 2015.

Results and conclusion: Agricultural production is rather versatile and unspecialized in most of the farm-holdings covered by the study in Korczyna Local Government Area (LGA). Cereals dominate the cropping system, while animal husbandry is predominantly by using the Simmental cattle breed. The farmers are aware that they farm in specific conditions, where sustainable land use is crucial for protecting biodiversity and preserving cultural heritage, thus permitting inhabitants to live in an uncontaminated environment. The Korczyna Local Government Area enjoys favourable conditions for the running of ecological farms, but with farmers visibly lacking in motivation as they consider such farming system as unprofitable, besides requiring lots of time and work.

Open access

Miloslav Šerý

Abstract

Currently, the native residents of a country are an important social phenomenon. Although extensive mobility challenges the bonds between places and their inhabitants, biographies of native residents are less often based in several spatial contexts because they are born and raised in a specific place and live there for their entire lives. This absence of residential mobility has important consequences for the ways native residents relate to their ‘home places’ and how they build local attachments. Using data from the Czech Republic, the main objective of this paper is to explore and analyse recent developments in the structure of native residents. The objects of analysis are the municipalities of the Czech Republic, and aggregate census data are used for the purpose of analysis. Spatial and non-spatial approaches to the analysis showed significant changes in the structure of native residents, revealing statistically significant spatial patterns. In general, the residents of Czech municipalities demonstrate levels of co-residence or ‘mixing’ in a significant way in recent years. Thus, further research into matters such as spatial belonging, attachment and identity should also take into account the influence of mobility.

Open access

Bence Somogyi and János Csapó

Abstract

When surveying the motivation side of travel and tourism, we can state that tourists consider in their travel decisions, certain landscape preferences – to a certain extent. It also seems to be evident, however, that the objective evaluation of a landscape is a hard task for researchers for numerous reasons. In recent decades, several attempts have been made to create such methods but it seems that, in Hungary at least, this topic is rather neglected. The aim of this study is to provide an evaluation method for the landscape preferences of passengers travelling on Hungarian railway lines, demonstrating how the landscape around the railways could become an attraction during the travel. We survey what types of landscape appearance would be needed in order to generate travel decisions for tourists and also how the travel experience itself could become a tourism product.

Open access

Włodzimierz Wójcicki

Summary

Subject and purpose of work: The work presents the emergence and shaping of basic economic issues since the dawn of human economic activity. Contemporary views on important economic issues have their roots in antiquity. The shaping of concepts such as money, interest, contract, credit as a part of the law, began a long time ago and exerted an influence on the way they are understood today.

Materials and methods: The basis for the considerations is the study of literature on the history of the development of economics and the science of management in economic, philosophical and ethical aspects. The work has shown the non-linear nature of the development of new phenomena emerging in volatile political, technical, religious and moral conditions, which are largely spontaneous, and a reciprocal overlap of various fields of knowledge in a general and individual sense. Particular discoverers were found to present a wide spectrum of interests.

Results: Historically, the development of economic knowledge began with the issues from the border of economics and management, from microeconomics (household) to macroeconomics (money); little information concerns large undertakings such as irrigation systems, pyramids or waging wars.

Conclusions: Generally speaking - monarchs’ edicts came before the deliberations of thinkers, concrete reasoning came before abstract considerations.

Open access

Dina Stober, Ivana Brkanić and Lucija Lončar

Abstract

Rural areas of the Republic of Croatia are experiencing abandonment, which is especially intensive in the eastern part of the country. This paper aims to provide insights into places with specific spatial and functional characteristics, pustara settlements, within the rural landscape of the Baranja region, presenting their cultural and architectural heritage that needs comprehensive protection and conversion. The redevelopment potential, as well as the negative significance of abandonment of these sites, indicates the need for identifying the characteristics of these settlements: the tangible value of its built facilities and open spaces, its movable cultural heritage, as well as its intangible values. The main objectives were to determine desirable tangible and intangible pustara values by investigating place attachment among former pustara residents, and to provide information on domestic tourists’ preferences in visiting these settlements. The results indicate a common preference among former pustara residents and tourists for its architectural heritage: e.g. its settlement as a spatial unit and its parks. Additionally, tourists expressed preferences for recreational and entertainment facilities. Common interests, as well as highly expressed needs among former inhabitants and tourists, present the basis for establishing new functions and redevelopment plans.

Open access

Alena Rochovská and Jurina Rusnáková

Abstract

This paper examines the issue of poverty and social exclusion of Roma in Slovakia. It highlights the problem of poverty among Roma communities, which together with segregation leads to absolute poverty and social exclusion. Based on ethnographic research the paper examines conditions in which inhabitants of segregated Roma communities sustain their livelihoods. In the qualitative part of our research we ask how inhabitants of segregated settlements organize and manage their livelihood and what strategies and practices they use to ensure social reproduction. Further, we assess the articulations between exclusion and social networks and other spheres of assets, including formal and informal labour, state benefits and the use of material assets. We argue that spatial segregation has an enormous impact on poverty.