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Open access

Miloslav Šerý

Abstract

Currently, the native residents of a country are an important social phenomenon. Although extensive mobility challenges the bonds between places and their inhabitants, biographies of native residents are less often based in several spatial contexts because they are born and raised in a specific place and live there for their entire lives. This absence of residential mobility has important consequences for the ways native residents relate to their ‘home places’ and how they build local attachments. Using data from the Czech Republic, the main objective of this paper is to explore and analyse recent developments in the structure of native residents. The objects of analysis are the municipalities of the Czech Republic, and aggregate census data are used for the purpose of analysis. Spatial and non-spatial approaches to the analysis showed significant changes in the structure of native residents, revealing statistically significant spatial patterns. In general, the residents of Czech municipalities demonstrate levels of co-residence or ‘mixing’ in a significant way in recent years. Thus, further research into matters such as spatial belonging, attachment and identity should also take into account the influence of mobility.

Open access

Bence Somogyi and János Csapó

Abstract

When surveying the motivation side of travel and tourism, we can state that tourists consider in their travel decisions, certain landscape preferences – to a certain extent. It also seems to be evident, however, that the objective evaluation of a landscape is a hard task for researchers for numerous reasons. In recent decades, several attempts have been made to create such methods but it seems that, in Hungary at least, this topic is rather neglected. The aim of this study is to provide an evaluation method for the landscape preferences of passengers travelling on Hungarian railway lines, demonstrating how the landscape around the railways could become an attraction during the travel. We survey what types of landscape appearance would be needed in order to generate travel decisions for tourists and also how the travel experience itself could become a tourism product.

Open access

Dina Stober, Ivana Brkanić and Lucija Lončar

Abstract

Rural areas of the Republic of Croatia are experiencing abandonment, which is especially intensive in the eastern part of the country. This paper aims to provide insights into places with specific spatial and functional characteristics, pustara settlements, within the rural landscape of the Baranja region, presenting their cultural and architectural heritage that needs comprehensive protection and conversion. The redevelopment potential, as well as the negative significance of abandonment of these sites, indicates the need for identifying the characteristics of these settlements: the tangible value of its built facilities and open spaces, its movable cultural heritage, as well as its intangible values. The main objectives were to determine desirable tangible and intangible pustara values by investigating place attachment among former pustara residents, and to provide information on domestic tourists’ preferences in visiting these settlements. The results indicate a common preference among former pustara residents and tourists for its architectural heritage: e.g. its settlement as a spatial unit and its parks. Additionally, tourists expressed preferences for recreational and entertainment facilities. Common interests, as well as highly expressed needs among former inhabitants and tourists, present the basis for establishing new functions and redevelopment plans.

Open access

Eva Janská and Josef Bernard

Abstract

The distribution of international migrants is an essential part of socio-geographical differentiation. In addition to international migration, internal or domestic migration plays an important role in the geographical distribution of immigrants. Based on data from the population register, the Census, and a quantitative survey, we analysed the internal mobility of Ukrainian and Vietnamese immigrants, which are the first and third largest international migrant groups in the Czech Republic. Using the assimilation perspective, the results of the analysis indicate that each ethnic group behaves differently. Specifically, the concentration of these immigrants differed at both regional and neighbourhood levels.

Open access

Ondřej Valenta and Dušan Drbohlav

Abstract

The topic of an education-occupation mismatch of tertiary educated migrant workers in receiving countries is an important issue in contemporary research in international migration, especially in the context of growing international economic competition. In this article, we analyse the level of mismatch of tertiary educated migrant workers in the Czech labour market, with a particular focus on Ukrainian workers. Using a unique set of statistical data, several conclusions can be drawn from a longitudinal approach, as well as multiple regression analysis in order to identify possible determinants of the mismatch at a district level. First, the mismatch of tertiary educated migrants does exist and is growing over time. Second, it seems that the level of mismatch is higher in economically progressive districts with higher numbers of qualified domestic and foreign workers, which creates a higher level of competition in the labour market. As a result, a relatively higher share of tertiary educated migrant workers end up over-educated in professions they find in the secondary labour market in these districts. Using the example of Ukrainians, the progression of tertiary educated migrants into the Czech labour market over time faces rather limited vertical mobility, with a slight progression to more skilled occupations. This can be related to the complexity of factors from individual to institutional levels of analysis.

Open access

Zuzanna Brunarska

Abstract

This paper makes the first attempt to measure economic disengagement in state-society relations on a regional level, using the case of Russia. An original composite index was calculated based on a number of indicators measuring different spheres of contact between the state and society. The study examines regional diversity in intensity of economic disengagement in state-society relations in Russia. It also attempts to identify determinants of economic disengagement on a regional level. Seeking to identify regional level predictors of the intensity of disengagement, the study focuses on the specificity of the Russian space – its federal structure based on a combination of territorial and ethnic principles. The results show that economic disengagement is least intense in regions belonging to the Russian Far North, which points to the role of physical-geographical factors and path dependence. They also reveal that residents of ethnically-defined regions tend to be less economically disengaged than residents of oblasts and krays. Moreover, the share of ethnic Russians is positively related to economic disengagement in the former regions, while it is not significant in the latter. These findings potentially point to differences between ethnic Russians and members of titular groups in terms of their intensity of interaction with the state in the economic sphere.

Open access

Jana Spilková

Abstract

Traditional, ‘post-traditional’ large-scale, and ‘alternative’ food shopping options are used in this paper to address the following questions: Who are the customers of these different retail formats? Is it possible to discern certain types of shopper according to retail formats? Do alternative food networks attract significantly different consumers than traditional forms and large-scale outlets? Relatively unique data collected in an omnibus survey by The Centre for Independent Public Opinion Research during 2014, 2015 and 2017 (n = 3,168) are used in this analysis. The consumption habits and preferences of a representative sample of the Czech population were subject to investigation. Results are presented mainly by descriptive statistics and the testing of hypotheses on the similarity or difference of given shopper populations by contingency analysis (associations between characteristics use contingency coefficients). A profile of shoppers according to food provisioning options is presented, and demographic, socio-economic and geographic factors influencing current trends in the shopping behaviours of Czech consumers are analysed. Significant differences between the customers of diverse retail formats and alternative possibilities to acquire food are among the most important distinguishing factors characterising Czech shoppers today.

Open access

Konstantin Axenov, Dovilė Krupickaitė, Kira Morachevskaya and Andrey Zinovyev

Abstract

Since the beginning of the 1990s, Soviet urban residential communities have experienced rapid inflows of new urban functions. In this research project, two post-Soviet urban areas - Vilnius and St. Petersburg - are examined to indicate contrasting development paths over the last 30 years. The term “retail sprawl” describes correctly one of the important processes which have reshaped the former socialist microdistricts. We used data from the years 1987-1989, the last years of the socialist economy, and 2016 for 36 comparable research areas. By 2016 the structure of these formerly monofunctional areas made them functionally very similar to that of the urban core, including them in the intra-urban circulation of goods and capital, redirecting flows and making the city centre’s service burden much lighter. The results of the study provide a controversial contribution to the virtual discussion on universalism vs. uniqueness in post-socialist urban development. On the one hand, irrespective of contrasting “path-dependent” impacts, the structural results of retail development turned out to be generally identical in the studied cities at present, as well as in a prototypical North-American city 25 years ago. On the other hand, we found very pronounced differences compared to international patterns in morphological outcomes.

Open access

Sina Hardaker

Abstract

The international expansion of the German discounters Aldi and Lidl in recent years has been a large success in grocery retailing. In China, the world’s largest grocery retail market, however, grocery discounters have not (yet) established a physical store presence. In 2017 Aldi Süd and Lidl for the first time entered a new market without the help of a physical store, implementing an online shop in China. As to the format’s future, significant disagreement amongst retail experts exists. This paper, which is based on qualitative interviews with high-ranking senior executives of international retailers, argues for three major reasons as to why the discount format has not hitherto gained a foothold in the Chinese market. Firstly, due to the characteristics and challenges of China’s market, such as high fragmentation as well as the need for strong localisation, a high standardisation of the format is not possible. Secondly, the extremely low-margin operation of discounters faces a price level in China that is already very low, limiting one of the discounter’s major competitive advantages. Thirdly, the discount format is facing a lack of consumer acceptance, toughening the establishment of private brands, which represents one of the major characteristics of the discount format.

Open access

Pedro Porfírio Coutinho Guimarães

Abstract

Retail is a dynamic sector and for several decades shopping centres have been the most successful format. Although such shopping centres have been held responsible for the decline of other retail concepts, they are not without problems and some retail precincts are losing their viability, becoming dead malls. Some other shopping centres however are quite resilient. In this study we analyse the different retail resilience strategies used by older shopping centres to overcome their declining trend. For empirical evidence we adopt a case study methodology and fieldwork to investigate the evolution of all old shopping centres in Lisbon, confirming that a general trend of decline is affecting a large majority of those retail precincts. Refining our analysis, we interviewed managers from three shopping centres that remain viable. We conclude that a wide range of strategies can be implemented, all of which enhance the relevance of the shopping centre management structures.