Pascal Krauthausen, Michael Leitner, Alina Ristea and Andrew Curtis
In this research, the spatial video technology is applied to the collection of soccer-related graffiti locations in the city of Krakow, Poland. Krakow is predestined for this research due to the long and often violent rivalry between fan groups of the two major soccer teams, MKS Cracovia and Wisla Krakow. This form of rivalry is often expressed by the application of graffiti by fans from both clubs, which can be observed in large parts of the city. Graffiti locations were digitized from spatial videos, stored in a Geographic Information System (GIS), and subsequently analyzed to explore (1) the overall spatial pattern, (2) the existence of spatial hotspots, and (3) changes to a previously conducted survey of graffiti locations in 2016. As expected, results indicate that graffiti locations are statistically significantly clustered, with pro-Wisla graffiti mainly concentrating in the north, pro-Cracovia graffiti dominating the south, and pro-Hutnik graffiti mostly found in the east of Krakow. The overall spatial pattern of graffiti locations remained relatively unchanged between the 2016 and 2018 surveys. Besides scientific inquiry, this research provides city officials with important information regarding graffiti locations in Krakow for a broader and more in-depth understanding of their spatial patterns.
Linda Dörrzapf, Anna Kovács-Győri, Bernd Resch and Peter Zeile
Walking as a transport mode is still often underrepresented in the overall transport system. Consequently, pedestrian mobility is usually not recorded statistically in the same manner as it is performed for motorised traffic which leads to an underestimation of its importance and positive effects on people and cities. However, the integration of walkability assessments is potentially a valuable complement in urban planning processes through considering important quantitative and qualitative aspects of walking in cities. Recent literature shows a variety of approaches involving discrepancies in the definition of walkability, the factors which contribute to it, and methods of assessing them. This paper provides a new understanding of the concept of walkability in the European context. Our approach relies on the extension of methodological competence in transportation, spatial planning and geography by linking new measurement methods for evaluating walkability. We propose an integrated approach to assessing walkability in a comprehensive methodology that combines existing qualitative and GIS-based methods with biosensor technologies and thus captures the perceptions and emotions of pedestrians. This results in an increased plausibility and relevance of the results of walkability analysis by considering the spatial environment and its effect on people.
Statistical, morphological and functional approaches have long been used to delineate spatial boundaries of urban agglomerations. This research uses data from the Central Statistical Bureau and the State Revenue Service. The results indicate that morphological and functional approaches are essential when defining the agglomeration, however the outcomes are different. The most relevant consistency was observed in the territorial units adjoining the city of Riga due to the fact that they have a common labour market with Riga and share a strong functional linkage. However, the spatial extent based on the morphological approach confirms and highlights the effects of urban sprawl.
Building upon the debates around travelling policy and precipitous imitation of bus rapid transit worldwide, this paper commits to disentangling the nexus of global intermediaries – that is, the advocacy organizations, engineering consultancies and international banks furthering the economy of policy translation. These associations promote their particular policy package by providing training manuals, funding for study tours and a never-ending stream of architects, engineers and planners with topical expertise and skills. This paper unravels the multiple and overlapping roles intermediaries play first by introducing the policy to relevant policymakers, providing technical expertise and financing, and later serving as critic of the translation process, drafting formative reports and measuring the merits as compared to the model. The economy of policy translation is to maintain these entanglements, to complicate the transfer of knowledge and to ensure that localities remain dependent on the nexus of global intermediaries. As such, these global intermediaries create and sustain a process whereby learning is deliberate and methodical but never-ending and unhurried. Such analysis contributes to policy mobilities discussions by identifying a wider process of peripatetic policymaking and politics, and in so doing, explains how and why certain best practices are elevated and esteemed while others are discounted.
Citizen participation in policymaking has become a worldwide key reference for the design and implementation of urban regeneration. Despite the growing rate of participatory processes, little evidence or scientific debate has been fostered on their measurement and, broadly speaking, evaluation. While challenges in providing robust evaluations are related to the difficulties in providing common definitions of citizen participation in policymaking, the limited sharing of theories and evidence compromises a more comprehensive understanding of the socio-political phenomenon. The article contributes to this topic by discussing the conceptualisation and operationalisation of the participation index for the Bip/ Zip programme. Since 2011, the programme has tackled socio-spatial inequalities in 67 priority areas of Lisbon by funding local partnerships composed of local associations, NGOs, and parish governments committed to engaging local communities in the development of their activities. The participation index will be formulated from the convergence of data collected through quantitative and qualitative methods on the constitution of partnerships, the implementation of initiatives, and the provision of public funding. The discussion provides critical reflection upon opportunities and challenges of the ongoing process from the academic and policy sides, which can positively stimulate future research on the topic.
Medellín, a city in Colombia, is known for its resurrection from the status of the most dangerous city in the world to that of the most innovative one (awarded in 2013). The paper discusses the achievements of Medellín as a Smart City, which include, among others, the popularisation of Internet usage, optimisation of the urban transportation system with a reduction in traffic accidents, development of a mass transportation system with a cable car for a famous city in the developing world, improved security, together with an efficient crime reporting system and environmental risk monitoring. The potential risks involved in the implementation of ICT in city management are also discussed, related mostly to social exclusion and the actual distribution of the benefit coming from the Smart City. When compared with European cities, the additional barriers that the Colombian city needs to overcome are very high social inequalities, endemic crime, and topographic difficulties. This Latin American perspective can make clearer the difference between the Smart City in cities of the Global North vs Global South.
This paper deals with the transformations of (post)industrial towns in Poland, which took place during the transition from a centralised communist economy to liberal capitalism. As a consequence, a number of areas became redundant. These malfunctioning spaces represent serious spatial, social and economic problems. The complex multifaceted nature of towns means, however, that there were no simple solutions leading to immediate improvements. Investments focused on particular, isolated areas appeared to be far from sufficient interventions. Therefore, comprehensive programmes aimed at holistic urban regeneration are more common nowadays. Since local community wellbeing is one of the key factors in these renewal schemes, social participation is a crucial part of the process. This allows residents to have an influence on the regeneration of their town, which (if well carried out) is expected to improve space, economy and quality of life. The above-mentioned issues will be analysed on the basis of a case study of Pabianice, a post-industrial town in the province of Lodz. The aim of this study is to examine the social participation initiatives implemented during the preparation of the Regeneration Programme for Pabianice – to classify them and to compare them with models regarding the level of social involvement and power in the urban regeneration process described in the paper.
Sustainable development has now become an element that is deeply integrated in contemporary architectonic design and urban planning. With the development of a modern designer’s workshop, resilience, passive, ecological, plus energy or nZEB buildings and various smart city issues have to be included in line with more conventional analyses prepared during the design processes. Currently, we also face the emerging theme of the circular economy. This has a great impact, not just on the introduction of circular loops into the flow of building materials, but also on the design approach and management choices. Historic heritage buildings forming part of the building stock must be considered within this new theme. Most existing research deals either with new or modernised buildings, or with the re-use flows of various materials, actually often coming from historic buildings which have passed beyond the limits of repair. This paper shows a different approach to historic buildings where a design was prepared focusing on best choice cases and included a chain of several intertwining approaches, presented against the background of a Polish case study in Warsaw. The aim of this work is to propose a design management procedure to be used when dealing with historic buildings. It follows both the path of a circular economy and of heritage values, emphasising the need to maintain as much of the existing fabric as possible. This analysis is also based on various issues of site research and is followed by historic building case analysis.
A comprehensive piece of research on the tools and methods available for public participation in urban development was carried out as part of the U_CODE Urban Collective Design Environment H2020-ICT Project, the results of which are presented in this paper. Approximately 70 methods and a range of participation goals were identified by investigating the publications of 20 cities and participation networks in Germany plus a number of online participation platforms. In the descriptions a general distinction was made between the level of involvement and the objective of participation. For most of the goals on informational or cooperation level, several (especially offline) tools were found to be available. For more ambitious objectives, e.g. massive co-design, no appropriate tools are currently market-ready, yet several research and development projects are targeting the development and testing of such means. The strong development of more complex methods and tools can be expected within the next few years. Often these instruments are designed in cooperation with urban authorities, however their broad application in German municipalities may take a couple of years yet.
Gentrification is no-longer, if it ever was, a small scale process of urban transformation. Gentrification globally is more often practised as large scale urban redevelopment. It is state-led or state-induced. The results are clear – the displacement and disenfranchisement of low income groups in favour of wealthier in-movers. So, why has gentrification come to dominate policy making worldwide and what can be done about it?