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Determination of musculoskeletal system pain, physical activity intensity, and prolonged sitting of university students using smartphone


Study aim: The purpose of this study was to examine smartphone-using university students’ musculoskeletal system pain complaints, duration of smartphone and computer usage, participation in moderate-vigorous physical activities (MVPA), and prolonged sitting time.

Material and methods: This study was conducted on Hitit University students (n = 387; 206 female, 181 male) in the province of Çorum. The International Physical Activity Questionnaire-Short Form (IPAQ-SF), the Physical Activity Assessment Ques­tionnaire (PAAQ) (sports/exercise activities section), and a personal information form prepared by the researchers were used as data collection tools. Descriptive statistics and the t-test were used to determine differences between groups. The Pearson chi-square test was used to examine the relationship between categorical variables.

Results: It was observed that half of the participants with musculoskeletal system pain complaints (54.5%) feel the pain in all four areas (neck, shoulder, upper and lower back). There was no statistically significant relationship between physical activity intensity and pain complaint (p > 0.05). The students with musculoskeletal pain complaints spend more time on the smartphone and computer than students who do not have pain complaints (p < 0.05). During electronic device usage, the students who are in the low-intensity physical activity category spend more time sitting down than students in the moderate/vigorous intensity physical activity category (p < 0.05).

Conclusions: In consequence, information can be provided about the importance of reducing sitting time during smartphone use and increasing the duration of moderate/vigorous-intensity physical activity (PA) so awareness can be raised on the issue among university students.

Open access
Different levels of physical activity and anthropometric profile in patients infected with hepatitis C virus


Study aim: To verify the relationship between different durations of regular practice of physical activity in aspects related to the anthropometric profile and hepatic function of patients infected by hepatitis C virus (HCV). Material and methods: 125 patients (aged 55.2 ± 10.4 years) participated in the study. Clinical data were obtained through medical records available at the Pernambuco Liver Institute. Physical activity levels were obtained through the International Physical Activity Questionnaire (IPAQ) short form to classify the patients according to the guidelines of the American College of Sports Medicine (ACSM). Results: Significant differences were found in GGT 141 (28-378 U/L) and HDL 39 (27-56 mg/dL) respectively in insuffi­ciently active and physically active groups, AST 71 (26-268 U/L), ALT 83 (36-452 U/L), GGT 78 (3-532 U/L), alkaline phos­phatase 74 (47-302 mg/dL) and total bilirubin 0.7 (0.1-2.8 mg/dL) in insufficiently active and very physically active groups. Anthropometric data showed significant differences in chest (p < 0.01), abdomen (p < 0.02) and waist measurement (p < 0.01) between insufficiently active and very physically active groups.

Conclusion: Physical activity, when practiced regularly for more than 300 minutes per week, can improve the clinical and an­thropometric profile in patients infected with HCV.

Open access
The Parameters of Foam Rolling, Self-Myofascial Release Treatment: A Review of the Literature


Self-myofascial release (SMR) is a well-known and popular therapy. Its growing popularity is based on high effectiveness and availability. However, there is a lack of agreement about which parameters should be used to optimize the effects of the therapy. The purpose of this review is to critically select and assess current literature and ascertain the values of the follow­ing parameters: (1) therapy duration, (2) volume of applied pressure, (3) speed and (4) frequency of roll, (5) type of roller, (6) the number of treatment applications during one session, (7) the duration of intervals between applications that yield the best results in terms of soft tissue.

The authors launched their research in May 2018. The search strategy included the electronic databases EBSCOhost and PubMed. The following inclusion criteria were assessed:

- English language, high quality manuscripts (evaluation in PEDro scale)

- at least one of the groups using the foam roller, tennis ball or the stick to fascial release

- basic parameters of therapy described.A total 55 articles met the inclusion criteria. Patients can usually withstand a maximum tolerable pressure for 30-120 seconds, repeated 1-3 times, separated by 30 seconds of rest. The intensity of a single rolling movement should be moderate, and the movement should last about 3 seconds. Keeping the roller on particularly sensitive areas is recommended to release tension and enhance blood perfusion.Currently, there is no consensus on an optimal FR programme. However, there is a tendency to use SMR tools with a physiol­ogy-based method to enhance therapeutic efficiency.

Open access
Are there correlations between attention, physical endurance and anthropometric parameters of athletes?


Study aim: The aim of the study was to investigate the relationship between attention and physical endurance (running) and anthropometric parameters of athletes.

Material and methods: The study examined 61 students aged 19 to 25 years, divided into two groups: athletes (33 participants) and non-athletes (28 participants). We employed anthropometric measurements and the Vienna System Test, including tools to measure focused attention, such as LVT (visual orientation performance test) and DAUF (test for examination of sustained attention) and the Cooper test to measure endurance.

Results: Analysis of the results demonstrated a relationship between attention and physical endurance with median time from LVT (r = –0.552). A relationship was also found between the Cooper test results and the mean time to incorrect answer (r = –0.900).

Conclusions: The analysis demonstrated a relationship between attention, physical endurance and anthropometric parameters of athletes.

Open access
Can stretch sensors measure knee range of motion in healthy adults?


Study aim: There are currently limited methods available to access dynamic knee range of motion (ROM) during free-living activities. This type of method would be valuable for monitoring and progressing knee rehabilitation. Therefore, the aim of this study was to evaluate the functioning of stretch sensors for the measurement of knee ROM and to assess the level of the measurement error. Material and methods: Nine healthy participants were included in the study. Three stretch sensors (StretchSense™, Auckland, NZ) were attached on the participants’ right knees by Kinesiotape®. A Cybex dynamometer was used to standardise movement speed of the knee joint. Data was recorded through the StretchSense™ BLE application. Knee angles were obtained from the video clips recorded during the testing and were analysed by MaxTraq® 2D motion analysis software. The knee angles were then synchronised with the sensor capacitance through R programme. Results: Seven out of the nine participants presented with high coefficient of determination (R2) (>0.98) and low root mean square error (RMSE) (<5°) between the sensor capacitance and knee angle. Two participants did not confirm good relationship between capacitance and knee angle as they presented high RMSE (>5°). The equations generated from these 7 participants’ data were used individually to predict knee angles. Conclusions: The stretch sensors can be used to measure knee ROM in healthy adults during a passive, non-weight-bearing movement with a clinically acceptable level of error. Further research is needed to establish the validity and reliability of the methodology under different conditions before considered within a clinical setting.

Open access
Cold-water immersion combined with active recovery is equally as effective as active recovery during 10 weeks of high-intensity combined strength and endurance training in men


Study aim: The purpose of this study was to compare the effects of cold-water immersion (CWI) vs. active recovery performed after each individual strength and endurance training session over a 10-week period of high-intensity combined strength and endurance training.

Materials and methods: Seventeen healthy men completed 10 weeks of high-intensity combined strength and endurance training. One group (AR, n = 10) completed active recovery that included 15 minutes of running at 30–40% VO2max after every strength training session while the other group (CWI, n = 7) completed 5 minutes of active recovery (at the same intensity as the AR group) followed by 10 minutes of cold-water (12 ± 1°C) immersion. During CWI, the subjects were seated passively during the 10 minutes of cold-water immersion and the water level remained just below the pectoral muscles. Muscle strength and power were measured by isometric bilateral, 1 repetition maximum, leg press (ISOM LP) and countermovement jump (CMJ) height. Endurance performance was measured by a 3000 m running time trial. Serum testosterone, cortisol, and IGF-1 were assessed from venous blood samples.

Results: ISOM LP and CMJ increased significantly over the training period, but 3000 m running time increased only marginally. Serum testosterone, cortisol, and IGF-1 remained unchanged over the intervention period. No differences between the groups were observed.

Conclusions: AR and CWI were equally effective during 10 weeks of high-intensity combined strength and endurance training. Thus, physically active individuals participating in high-intensity combined strength and endurance training should use the recovery method they prefer.

Open access
Diagnostic value of Beep and Yo-Yo tests in assessing physical performance of female soccer players


Study aim: The aim of the present study was to compare the physiological responses of female soccer players recorded during the Beep Test and Yo-Yo Test.

Material and methods: Twenty-three high-level women’s soccer players underwent aerobic fitness testing. Modification of the Beep Test consisted of: lengthening the distance between turns to 40 m, extending the time between the increase in speed, and including a rest period between exercise stages. During the running efforts the length of the distance run in both tests was measured as well as circulatory and respiratory variables. For statistical analyses only data obtained at maximum loads in both tests were accepted.

Results: Analyzed variables showed that all values recorded in both tests reached maximum values and did not differ statistically significantly.

Conclusion: The results show that both applied tests loaded the soccer players to a similar maximum degree and the tests are suitable for assessing the aerobic physical performance.

Open access
Differences between anthropometric indicators and the impact force of taekwondo kicks performed with the dominant and non-dominant limb


Study aim: Taekwondo is known for its very dynamic sports fighting, in which the athletes perform strikes mainly with their lower limbs. The aim of the study was to compare the differences between the impact force of strikes performed with the dominant and non-dominant limbs and its correlation with anthropometric indicators.

Material and methods: Six elite Olympic taekwondo players took part in the research (20.0 ± 3.2 years, 185.0 ± 8.5 cm, 75.3 ± 10.9 kg). Body composition including body mass, percent of body fat (FATP), fat mass (FATM), fat-free mass (FFM) and muscle mass (MM) was determined by bioelectric impedance analysis. Maximal strike impact force (Fmax) and Fmax relative to FFM (Fmax · FFM−1) of roundhouse kick (dollyo chagi) and side kick (yop chagi) were measured using a dynamometric punching bag with an embedded accelerometer.

Results: We found significant differences between the dominant limb (DL) and non-dominant limb (NL) in anthropometric analysis: FATP was 10.52 ± 5.38 % and 11.32 ± 4.83 %, FFM was 11.87 ± 0.97 kg and 11.43 ± 1.09 kg, MM was 11.25 ± 0.92 kg and 10.82 ± 1.02 kg for DL and NL respectively. In dollyo chagi Fmax and Fmax · FFM−1 were higher for DL than NL and were 2733 ± 748 N and 2206 ± 778 N, 41.34 ± 8.16 N · kg−1 and 33.29 ± 9.02 N · kg–1 respectively. Yop chagi has a lower impact force compared to dollyo chagi. Fmax and Fmax · FFM−1 for DL and NL were 1763 ± 303 N and 1779 ± 372 N, 26.76 ± 3.07 N · kg−1 and 26.9 ± 3.57 N · kg–1 respectively. We found a significant correlation between Fmax in yop chagi and FFM (R = 0.83, p < 0.05).

Conclusions: Athletes should fight using a stance where the dominant limb is moved further away from the target in order to strike with maximum force.

Open access
The effect of 30-m repeated sprint exercise on muscle damage indicators, serum insulin-like growth factor-Iand cortisol


Study aim: The purpose of this study was to examine the effects of arepeated sprint exercise protocol on muscle damage indicators, serum IGF-Iand cortisol levels.

Material and methods: Nine trained male subjects (age 23.3 ± 3.6 years) completed arepeated sprint protocol consisting of two sets of 10 × 30-m maximal sprints with 30 s of active recovery between sprints and 5 min of passive recovery between sets. The isometric strength and flexibility were measured before, immediately after and 24 hours after exercise. 30-m maximal sprint time was measured before and 24 hours after exercise. Blood samples were taken before, immediately after and 24 hours after exercise.

Results: Isometric strength and flexibility were significantly decreased after exercise and 24 hours after exercise (p < 0.05). 30-m sprint time was significantly increased 24 hours after exercise (p < 0.05). Asignificant increase in serum lactate dehydrogenase, IGF-Iand cortisol were found after exercise (p < 0.05). Serum creatine kinase increased significantly immediately after and 24 hours after exercise compared to pre-exercise values (p < 0.05).

Conclusion: Our data show that due to increased serum IGF-Ilevel, repeated sprint exercise may have anabolic effects as well as traumatic effects on the muscles.

Open access
Effect of creatine ethyl ester supplementation and resistance training on hormonal changes, body composition and muscle strength in underweight non-athlete men


Study aim: The aim of this study to determine whether creatine ethyl ester (CEE) supplementation combined with resistance training (RT) is effective for improving hormonal changes, body composition and muscle strength in underweight non-athlete men.

Materials and methods: Sixteen underweight non-athlete men participated in this double-blind study and were randomly assigned to one of two groups: RT with placebo (RT + PL, n = 8) and RT with CEE supplementation (RT + CEE, n = 8). The participants performed 6 weeks of RT (60–80% 1RM) combined with CEE or PL. 48 hours before and after the training period, muscle strength (1RM for leg press and bench press), body composition (percentage of body fat, circumference measurements of the arm and thigh), serum levels of testosterone, cortisol, and growth hormone (GH) of the participant were measurements.

Results: Significant increases were observed for weight, muscle strength and muscle mass, serum levels of testosterone and GH between pre and post-test in the RT + CEE group (p < 0.05). In addition, cortisol level was significantly decreased in the post-test in the RT+CEE group. The decrease in fat percent was greater in the RT + PL group than in the RT + CEE group (%change = –6.78 vs. –0.76, respectively). Weight and leg strength changes in the RT + CEE group were significant compared to the RT + PL group (p < 0.001, p = 0.05, p = 0.001; respectively). However, in other variables, despite the increase of GH and testosterone levels and lower levels of cortisol in the RT + CEE group, no significant differences were observed between the two groups (p < 0.05).

Conclusion: It seems that the consumption of CEE combined with RT can have significant effects on body weight and leg strength in underweight non-athlete men. This supplement may provide a potential nutritional intervention to promote body weight in underweight men.

Open access