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Abimbola A. Akanni, Idowu Omisile and Choja A. Oduaran

Abstract

Workplace deviant behavior has been linked to a number of organizational losses such as decreased employee morale, increased turnover and loss of legitimacy among important external stakeholders. Therefore, this paper investigated the relationships between religiosity, job status and workplace deviant behavior. Participants consisted of 351 (F=178; Mean age=39.2) employees of the Local Government Service Commission in Nigeria. Data which were sourced through the Workplace Deviant Behavior Scale and Centrality of Religiosity Scale were analyzed using multiple regression. Results revealed that religiosity negatively related to workplace deviant behavior, but no significant difference was found between junior and senior staff in their display of workplace deviant behavior. In addition, both religiosity and job status jointly influenced respondents’ workplace deviant behavior. The findings imply that high religiosity among employees might reduce the risks of deviance and in turn create a better work environment.

Open access

Vasile Gherheş

Abstract

The study presents the results regarding the attitudes of students from humanities and technical specializations in Timișoara towards the emergence and development of artificial intelligence (AI). The emphasis was on the most likely consequences of the development of artificial intelligence in the future, especially the negative consequences that its development would entail. The method used for data collection was the sociological survey and the information gathering tool was the questionnaire. It was applied to a total of 929 people, ensuring a sample representativity margin of ± 3%. The analysis reveals that the participants in the study predict that due to the emergence and development of AI, in the future, interpersonal relationships will be negatively affected, there will be fewer jobs, economic crises will emerge, it will be used to make intelligent weapons, to increase military conflicts, to take control of humanity and, last but not least, to destroy mankind. The results revealed differences in responses depending on the type of specialization (humanities or technical) and the gender of the respondents.

Open access

Evi Nurleni

Abstract

This study aims to describe the role of reproductive, productive and community working of the society of KerengBangkirai and to know the requirement of woman practice and strategic needs in KerengBangkirai. It used qualitative approach with humans as study object. The object of study is the KerengBangkirai society. The result showed that the role of reproductive role became women’s responsibility, either wife/mother or daughter. The role of gender within the community showed the lack of access and women’s control in making important decision. In fact, women are usually missed from village officers’ attention. The women’s practical needs include skills of using fishing gear, child care provider, child room building and others. Then, women’s strategic needs include authority alteration in term of decision-making involvement, equalling job division in domestic sector, women’s involvement in paid toilets as their productive workspace, violence awareness of gender-based and achieving fair access and control.

Open access

Stefan Kolar

Abstract

The People’s Republic of China and Japan have been at odds with each other for over a century. Their modern relationship was shaped by imperialism, territorial disputes, and two wars. With the end of the bipolar power structure of the Cold War, both nations are vying for regional leadership. The unresolved territorial dispute over the Senkaku/Diàoyú Islands (Senkaku shotō 尖閣諸島/ Diàoyúdǎo jí qí fùshǔ dǎoyǔ 钓岛及其附属岛屿) in the East China Sea serves as a constant catalyst for clashes between both powers and seems to be pushing towards a violent eruption. Thus, this paper assesses the risk of an interstate war between China and Japan in the twenty-first century. By employing the Steps to War theory, each step nations usually take before engaging in war, it will be analysed in order to see how far the brewing Sino-Japanese conflict has developed. This paper aims at answering the questions of the current risk of war, whether there is a palpable shift towards conflict escalation during the twenty-first century, and if so, identifying the main drivers for this development and ascertaining whether threats to stability are currently increasing or decreasing.

Open access

Marianne Jung

Abstract

In the absence of concrete ethnic differences, the division of a single Korean nation into two opposing states has led to the creation of specific types of nationhood and state building. This pseudo-ethnicity, which marks North Korean immigrants as “other” to South Koreans, results in adaptation problems and cultural difficulties. As the sociological literature considers self-employment of minorities and immigrants to be an important avenue for upward economic mobility, this paper focuses on North Korean new settlers who have established their own businesses in South Korea. By case study analysis, it was revealed that new settlers and official organisations have highly differing perceptions on the issue of North Korean self-employment. Public authorities try to discourage North Koreans from becoming self-employed, which is why a comprehensive economic support programme is lacking. However, it was discerned that a new generation of new settlers is growing, showing high motivation and entrepreneurial spirit. The result of this study showed that a tailored support programme for self-employed North Koreans, such as an adapted form of social enterprises, is needed.

Open access

Sebastian Polak-Rottmann

Abstract

This paper tackles the question of what kind of views on risk and security prevail in the Japanese private security industry and analyses its discursive structure. A theoretical framework based on the Copenhagen School’s concept of securitisation and its modification by Olaf Corry-the model of riskification-is used to explain processes of shaping notions of risk and security within the discourse. By analysing newspapers and professional magazines, it can be observed that by constantly pointing out the risks, the environment of the private security industry slowly changes, giving private companies further opportunities to act as a positively acknowledged part of society. It is not them, however, who actively shape these circumstances; rather, the broader range of activities are enforced and legitimised by the police that seems to be increasingly interested in joint crime prevention strategies.

Open access

Gerd Kaminski and Fangfang Xu

Abstract

Compared to other ethnic groups, oversea Chinese constitute a smaller portion of the Austrian population. However, they still share many common values, while leading a diverse social and cultural life. This paper focuses on Chinese associations as a significant part of the Austrian Chinese community. First, we introduce the history of overseas Chinese associations in Austria, especially the first two founded in Austria in the early 1990s. Then, we discuss the general characteristics and main functions of overseas Chinese associations, followed by an overview of other Chinese associations in Austria. Lastly, we propose a classification system of overseas Chinese associations based on selected characters, including shared provenance, profession, ideology, natural characteristics, and hobbies.

Open access

Peter Fankhauser

Abstract

Contrary to common findings on self-disclosure and gender, male students at a Japanese university that were questioned for this study reported significantly higher disclosure to close friends than their female colleagues-overall as well as for various individual topics (N = 479). Two different measures of self-disclosure were used, both yielding similar results. The gender differences were especially pronounced in cross-gender friendships. In accordance with previous literature, subjective feeling of closeness and respondents’ trust in the stability of the friendship were found to be positively associated with self-disclosure. While both closeness and trust in relationship stability were greater in same-gender friendships, no gender differences were found in this regard. The conclusion discusses the possibility of these findings being connected to shifting images of masculinity and femininity among Japanese youth, as well as changing interaction patterns between genders.

Open access

Muhammad Rehan Masoom

Abstract

Aging is an inevitable reality of human lives, and hundreds of thousands of studies address the questions of what makes people old. However, the underlying fact behind the question of what makes us old is the apprehension to face the grim reality of the life in the old age. Like other social sciences, a range of debates rises over the years that make the question more complex by bringing it to the theoretical realm where empirical examples often given less focus, and sometimes completely ignored. The paper presents some well-known cases, published in the daily newspaper (the Daily Star, Dhaka, Bangladesh) about the people in the old age, mostly living in the old home, and intends to interpret them with a purpose to outline the factors that change the plot of lives. The study concludes that people in the old become disengaged from the society primarily after three events, first, the death of the spouse, second, the marriage of the children, and third children left the home country and staying abroad. In addition, there is also the case that simply tells us disengagements do not imply the end of life, contrarily people can re-engage to a different form of lives after disengaging from the life they know.

Open access

Patrick Vierthaler

Abstract

In Korea, August 15 marks both the liberation from colonialism (1945) and the promulgation of the South Korean state (1948). As a memorial day, 8.15 became to be narrated mostly as the day of liberation, while 1948 plays only a minor role. However, in the 2000s, the emergence of the New Right brought new debates on how to evaluate post-liberation history. A historical view proposing public memory on 8.15 centred on the “foundation” of South Korea emerged (kŏn’guk view). Combined with attempts to re-name 8.15 into a foundation day (kŏn’gukchŏl), an intense dispute between proponents and opponents of the re-narration was the result. This paper outlines the emergence of the New Right and traces the origins and politicisation of the kŏn’guk view and demonstrates how adopting the kŏn’guk narrative in state commemoration events led to a broad dispute in South Korean society. I trace this view’s origin to 2003 and argue that it got politicised in early 2008 during the early Lee Myung-bak administration. The politicisation resulted in a dispute in politics, civil society, and newspapers, whose progress and characteristics I analyse in detail. As a result of the 2008 Kŏn’gukchŏl Dispute, the issue of how to narrate the events of 1948 became actively discussed in academic scholarship since 2009.