The study follows the archetype - prototype - stereotype path in the evolution of the plastic model, in order to capture the organic connection between these notions specific to iconic language. The chronology is reversed to capture a contemporary stereotype of advertising images, as a result of an apparent form of expression of female emancipation: the erotic objectification of man. Far from being just „trendy”, the visual motif has a whole history that deserves to be pointed out as the different approaches always reflect the spirit of that era.
During the 2016 presidential election debates, Donald Trump became the subject of a guerrilla campaign initiated by the anarchist group Indicline, through which five grotesque nude statues of the Republican candidate were installed in various cities in the United States. The message was not accidental considering that nude photos of Melania Trump from the beginning of her modelling career were re-published simultaneously. Through aesthetic antithesis, the image of the naked body was supposed to stigmatize the couple in public perception, starting from an artificial reality created in the everyday landscape, but which had to become viral in the online environment.
The brief episode represented by the Bhagavad-Gītā, entrenched in the great body of the epic Hindu poem Mahābhārata, is revealing for the long lasting intellectual and spiritual effort made by the enlightened Indian philosophers in order to over-pass the ritual and social constraints put in place by the Veda, during the early period of the Hindu tradition. By focusing on the dialogue between a valiant knight and the earthly incarnation of God himself, a perennial wisdom is to be noticed. This is a promise for salvation from fear and death for all who dare to follow their duty, by offering them other ways of attending the Supreme. The self-sacrifice, the renunciation to all ego and the pure love for the Divine represent sacrifices that equal those offered by Hindu priests. By this, every single individual is meant to finally embrace freedom and eternity.
Throughout history, the authorities tried to prevent some messages to reach the members of organizations. For this goal, they used the method of criterion or the method of lists. The criterion method is not adequate since it asks the analysis of the text or body of discourse in order to be applied. Instead, the lists method can be used analyzing only the cover of the publications. At their turn, the lists are exclusive or inclusive. The exclusive lists, like Index Librorum Prohibitorum, include the works that should not be received by a certain public, while the inclusive lists contain the publications agreed by the authorities.
The present study treats a very little researched subject in the specialized literature, respectively the censorship of the orthodox press in communism. We turned our attention to the periodical publication “Glasul Bisericii”, the official magazine of the Metropolitan Church of Ungrovlahia. During the communist regime, the religious press was doubly censored. This was exercised by two institutions, namely: the Department of Cults and the General Directorate of Press and Printing. The censors of the Department of Cults who dealt with the journals of religious cults did not necessarily have theological studies, for which reason they could not understand certain specialized terms or phrases. This thing can be seen into the report signed by the censor Ecaterina Durosov Macheev, from 1971. Another example would be the typing mystakes that escaped from the watchful eye of censorship, and that could have affected the relations between Romanian Orthodox Church and Russian Orthodox Church and, implicitly, with the Soviet Union.
It is crucial to inform the public about the procedures in psychiatric practice, meant to ensure complex and adequate medical care for the mentally ill patient, in respect of the dignity and rights of the patient, but also according to legal regulations. The occurrence of twisted considerations about psychiatry and patients with mental illness is due to the lack of information about mental illness, the beneficial effects of drug therapy, the need for hospitalization and patient protection in a psychiatric hospital, as part of treatment. When a psychiatric patient is brought in the guard room of a psychiatric hospital by the public services (EMT, police, public guardians, etc.), by his family or when the patient voluntarily asks to be hospitalized (the ideal model), they will receive complex medical care in full respect for his rights. Some situations occur when the patient refuses to express his consent regarding the consultation, diagnosis, treatment or even hospitalization (surveillance and monitoring) in the psychiatric hospital, considering unjustified any approach in this regard and that this violates his fundamental rights. The form of hospitalization, without the patient’s consent, is called involuntary hospitalization (sectioned). This raises an issue between “respecting the patient’s rights” if he is acting to endanger himself or others or “restricting” them by involuntary hospitalization, which would increase the quality of care and patient safety.
Among contemporary Latin American writers, the Cuban Guillermo Cabrera Infante occupies a special place. He represents the temptation of playing with words and with very complex narrative strategies, in order to make up a text, Three Trapped Tigers (1965), impossible to be analyzed with the traditional approaches frequently used by the literary critics. This magnificent text is not entirely a novel, nor a collection of short stories, the author himself defining it as a “free book”, representing his own deep nostalgia for his beloved city, Havana, which he lost forever after the complete success of the Cuban Revolution.
Individual identity crisis became an obsessive theme of the Central-European literature, lived intensively in this space. From this point of view, the generations and literary promotions of the 1960 and 1970’s Romania benefited from a specific openness due to a complex of social, political and historical factors. The 80s generation appeared in a full process of strengthening the ideological vigilance after the famous July Theses introduced by Nicolae Ceausescu following the North Korean model. Although there were the same rules and the same barriers for beginners of the era, the issue was treated and felt differently. While some suffer from the delay of the debut, others are patient because they trust their chance, others give up. Even if the overall context was an oppressive one and the institution of censorship was the one that controlled the literature during the communist period, authors managed to adapt and write no matter what, they found accepted ways that did not alter their message and they published under conditions that today we can hardly call without doubt honourable. The published authors had visibility and were united around some literary circles, forming what Allen Ginsberg called in The Best Minds of My Generation: A Literary History of the Beats, «circles of liberation.»
We address Homo Sapiens, probably the most widely read book of Yuval Noah Harari, and we stress the weaknesses of the frame he uses to boldly interpret what can only harshly be considered a “history of mankind.” We argue that such an ambitious enterprise has to avoid shallowness and needs to be deeply philosophically-informed.
In the reading cultural openness, the human effort is the key to a de-construction that opens the source of knowledge. Can we only build libraries? Do we only read the book or also the author? The line of the book’s culture runs parallel to daily life or breaks the rhythm or tense knowledge. How do we build man-literature? Is knowledge an Oath in Gandhi’s meaning, a Covenant with a memory? And how does the dimension of human dignity evolve from reading into knowledge? We have no answer. However, we have a description of the interrogation process.