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Abstract

Is it possible to speak of the compulsion to create? And if so, what underlies it? In this article, I set out to offer a comprehensive explanation of what may cause the strong desire for creative activity observable in many artistically-inclined individuals. To describe this desire, I use the term compulsion to create, and drawing upon examples from both pop-culture and the lives of famous artists on the one hand, and philosophical and scholarly writings on the other, I seek its sources in the individual’s psyche. I discuss how the compulsion to create depends, among other factors, on an individual’s personality and mental state (in the sense of Sigmund Freud’s and Elaine N. Aron’s theories), transcendental circumstances (in the sense of Carl Jung’s theory) and character traits (as defined by Jordan Peterson). Then, I frame the phenomenon studied within the 4Ps Model of Creativity. I point to a significant correlation between the compulsion to create and high levels of an individual’s creativity. Additionally, I discriminate between the notions of the drive to create and the compulsion to create. The article proposes a definition of the compulsion to create which allows for a clear understanding of this notion and its popular application in the field of creatology.

Abstract

The text aims to present how creativity and creative behaviours, understood as an act of transcending oneself and the world, can positively influence the fields of art, science, education and upbringing. A constitutional feature of creativity is its ability to transcend what is fixed, tamed and predictable, both individually and globally, at the microcosmic and macro-cosmic level; to transcend what is within us and outside us. The author of the article analyzes the following issues: is there a positive aspect to creativity understood as the act of transcendence? And, given such an understanding of creativity, are all acts of creation, whether they involve the creation of great works of art, the pursuit of science, the processes of education and upbringing, or simply the resolution of daily problems, more spiritual than intellectual?

Abstract

In the interview with Robert J. Sternberg, one of most prolific creativity researchers, we discuss his career, main areas of research interest, chosen research methods and share his thoughts about the future of research on creativity and effectiveness in scientific work.

Abstract

The purpose of the research was to investigate different types of training in insight problem solving. In doing so, we reviewed the literature on experimental tests of procedures for training insight problem solving. The results revealed that most procedures focused either on restructuring or divergent thinking, and provided some evidence for the effectiveness of both approaches. However, we found no studies that compared the effects of the two approaches. The article reports two experiments that compared different training procedures based on restructuring and divergent thinking. For the latter, the methods focused separately on fluency, flexibility and originality training. The first experiment compared a restructuring approach with fluency training and a placebo control condition. The results indicated that the restructuring training was significantly more effective than the others, but only when instructions were verbal, not in script form. The second experiment compared restructuring training with flexibility, fluency and originality training, all presented in script form, and the results indicated that the restructuring training was significantly more effective than both fluency training and flexibility training. Implications for future research are discussed.

Abstract

Parent-child interactions are influenced by cultural expectations, beliefs, and values. Chinese parenting is shaped by Confucian principles. Chinese children tend to be more academically successful but less creative than American children. Yet, little is known about how actual parent-child interactions might contribute to this finding. We conducted three case studies using a social constructivist approach to parenting to explore how parent-child interactions in early childhood education might influence children’s academics and creativity. We studied 11 participants from three families: Chinese, interracial (Chinese mother and American father), and American. Through interviews, observations, and artifacts, we found that parenting decisions are influenced by parents’ cultural climates. Chinese parents trained children to learn for academic achievement; American parents encouraged children to pursue their own interests; and inter-racial parents did some of both.

Abstract

Objective: In our pilot study, we tested to what extent subjective understanding and aesthetic appreciation of em-bossed drawings were dependent on the information that their creators were people with disability. Method: Our research was carried out in a gallery of contemporary art with 30 adults who were non-experts in the field of visual arts. Subjects were asked to view the current exhibition and then evaluate their subjective understanding and aesthetic appreciation (liking and interest) of 12 embossed drawings on seven-point scales. Results: Participants who were aware that persons with blindness had created the drawings (the informed group) in contrast to those who remained unaware (the uninformed group) declared – both – greater subjective understanding and higher appreciation of the exhibited works. In the informed group (N = 15), in comparison to the uninformed group (N = 15), the correlation between appreciation and subjective understanding of artwork was stronger. Conclusions: We discuss our pattern of results considering the attributional approach to creativity (Kasof, 1995) and the model of a cognitive mastering process of aesthetic experiences (Leder, Belke, Oeberst, & Augustin, 2004). Our results can be used, among others, by educators working in art galleries and museums.

Abstract

Delving into the nature of the creative process, attention is given in the article to particular kinds of emotions appearing in the course of the work of a creative person. Particular emphasis is given to the emotions the artist is guided by during the act of creation. The reflections presented in the text result not only from theoretical analysis, but also from the author’s experience in the process of creation. In this context they refer closely to the personal emotional sensations accompanying the author when painting pictures.

The article distinguishes and analizes the concept of loneliness in artistic creation. Selected visual artists are recalled, who deliberately refer in their work to the experience of loneliness in the process of creation. The significance of artists belonging to creative community groups is also pointed out. Positive and negative aspects of experiencing loneliness by the creator in the act of artistic creation are also stressed.

Abstract

The current research aims to analyse ways of conceptualising the term creativity with the help of drawings, as a form of cognitive rendering by primary school students, pedagogy students and primary school teachers. The research seeks to find answers to three questions: What common notions of creativity are held by both primary school pupils and teachers and pedagogy students? Are there any differences in the understanding of this term among these groups of people? How far is the implicit, personal understanding of creativity in line with the scientific notion of this term? The visual ethnography method was applied in the study. Qualitative visual data (177 drawings of pupils, students and teachers) were used as the main source of data for analysis in addition to verbal data (written descriptions by the participants). Empirical data were analysed from the perspective of both an elitist and egalitarian approach to creativity, and using various ways to define creativity, as well as selected understandings of the term. Analysis of the qualitative data, demonstrated that pupils, students and teachers are able to treat creativity holistically and systematically, although they tend to associate creativity with the person who is the creator or with a broadly understood product, rather than the process or external circumstances that support creative activity. The research suggests that pupils’ definitions of creativity focus around four aspects of meaning: 1) creativity as self-expression; 2) creating new things; 3) ability to utilise the internal resources of imagination and creative thinking outside the system; 4) participation in solving everyday problems. Furthermore, it is possible to say that the knowledge of teachers in this matter is more consistent (cultural knowledge) and that of students is more personal (atypical, original, referring to a larger number of different problems and themes).

Abstract

Nowadays many human interactions take place in the virtual environment. To express emotions and attitudes in computer-mediated communication (CMC) individuals use emoticons - graphic representations of emotions and ideas. Contemporary applications serving computer-mediated communication (CMC) are provided with a broad spectrum of emoticons which may be used in communication. Variety of emoticons gives users of CMC an opportunity to create unique messages and express emotions in a creative manner. This study involved 275 online respondents and aimed to verify whether the frequency of emoticons use may be predicted by the three characteristics of creativity (creative abilities, openness, independence). Bayesian regression analysis showed that creativity does not predict frequency of emoticons use in CMC. No correspondence between creativity and frequency of emoticons use may be explained by pragmatic function of emoticons as they are used to communicate efficiently with an emphasis on the sender-recipient shared understanding of the emoticons meaning. What is more, robust popularity of communication applications leads to widespread employment of emoticons by CMC users. Therefore, with growing number of emoticons users’ creative individuals may seek less common means of expressing own creativity.

Abstract

The paper deals with social and family conditions for the development of creative thinking. It is a voice in the dispute between supporters of the view that creative thinking is inherited and supporters of the thesis that it is shaped socially and within the process of education. The author presents an argument for the role of childhood and the mother in shaping creative predispositions. An attempt at polemics with concepts such as the “creative school” or the “creative teacher” is made.