Cultural rights are becoming an increasingly important area of human rights discussion given the association between culture, identity and social equity. The subject is considered here in the context of how the absence of cultural rights influences both the recognition of the diversity of cultures and the capacity of some to access and practice art. Culture and arts practices are intertwined but certain arts practices are prioritised over others by funding bodies, governments and institutions. Recent examples from Australia are highlighted, in which changes to the cultural makeup of the country are occurring at a rapid rate without adequate responses from governments to address funding inequities. It is argued here that unless cultural rights are seen as a basic human right and embedded in the legal national framework, then sectors of the broader community are disenfranchised.
Present article places in the center of attention finance as a science, which examines all relations of distributive and redistributive nature between different economic actors related to the formation and use of monetary resources and funds. Finance has a relatively long history of development, with ongoing substantial transformation. The results of generalization of related studies show that there are three periods in the genesis of finance as a science. First is the scientific status. Second - is related to the transition to the scientific process. The third is the scientific or rational. The fourth period is related to the formation of the neoclassical theory of finance. This transformation takes place so far under the influence of a new factor related to the establishment of the post industrial type economy. Equally important was the process of internationalization and then - of globalization. Last has a double impact. On one side, there is the consolidation of the financial system scientifically accepted as the single global vision on different areas of financial sciences. From the other hand, there is the process of adaptation and development of scientific concepts under the influence of new financial and economic conditions imposed by the superlative form related to globalization. The development of the financial sciences is also related to the need to solve a large complex of important problems of a financial nature, which will ultimately lead to the change of the global financial picture.
The first purpose of the university system is to deliver qualitative education through solid didactics/educational, but not many university structures seem really interested in the subject.
Sets of laws, measures, rules, and prescriptions of all kinds are in fact relegating it to a corner, making it less and less central and effective while also increasing the difficult to decipher, update and innovate it.
As a matter of fact, the issue of modernization of teaching methods has been tackled decisively by the European Commission, which has placed it among the priorities of its agenda. By acting in this way, EU is manifesting the conviction that a better quality for higher education will determine a growth in development and competitiveness not only for the Union itself but also for the individual universities that will define a strategy to improve the level of their teaching and learning and to give equal importance to research and teaching.
In its report on the theme of modernization and quality of teaching and learning, the European Commission summarizes its conclusions in 16 recommendations, including:
- the need for adequate teaching training for teachers;
- the need for the merits of teachers who make a significant contribution to improving teaching and learning methods to be recognized and rewarded.
But in order to achieve such quality prospects, it is necessary for university teachers to combine the knowledge of their discipline with specific communicative, cognitive and, more generally, relational skills. All this must become a principle of the university teaching of the future.
However, on a practical level, it is not uncommon to meet teachers who are not sufficiently attentive to these dimensions of the teaching-learning dynamic, failing to identify the “language” capable of transferring their theoretical/practical knowledge in the function of real learning of the student.
Martynenko Elena Viktorovna and Parkhitko Nickolay Petrovich
The development of the lifelong education system is one of the most important areas of educational activity, which implies the continuity of processes in the systems of preschool, general secondary, primary, secondary, higher, postgraduate and additional professional education. The effectiveness and the possibility of educational activities are determined by the interconnections between the various stages of the innovation cycle, producers and consumers of services; firms, market, government and other social partners. Continuing education can be seen as part of a lifelong learning concept. Continuing education is not just a pedagogical system, characterized by certain structural features, functional relationships and teaching technologies, but also a specific component of the whole society. It becomes continuous, connected with life, and not just final, prescribed to a person during his studies at school, secondary school or university. The development of the lifelong education system allows creating all the necessary conditions to ensure the response of the education system to the dynamically changing needs of the individual, society, and the economy. In addition, many scientists note that the continuing education system plays an important role in the formation of personnel for the innovative development of Russian regions. The development of the lifelong education system is aimed at supporting the competent development of the individual, at implementing the concept of developing education. A competency-based approach to education creates all the necessary conditions for the diverse development of the individual, the formation of competencies and personal qualities that allow effective action in various life situations. The concept of lifelong education is based on the principles of continuity, flexibility, fast dynamics associated with changing needs in the labor market, for the implementation of education “not FOR life, but THROUGH life”. The article is devoted to the problem of implementation of continuing education in Russia and its impact on the quality of education in our country.
Ethnicity in the historical process has been the main subject of political, economic, military and geographical change. Ethnicity, which was identical to the identity of tribes and clans before empires formed the basis of different phenomena in multi-ethnic national states. In this context, terms such as nation, race, ethnic minority, national minority etc. are used synonymously. The international structure formed aft er the collapse of the bipolar system. Concepts such as ethnic, ethnic group, minority, national minority, ethnic minority, nation, nation-state, ethnic-state, ethnic problems, ethnic discrimination have been brought to the agenda again and these concepts’ qualities and meanings have started to be reconsidered by scholars.
Ethnic issues not only affect internal politics but also external and international politics for countries which have ethnic groups in their society. Therefore, these effects are causing the questioning of the system of national-states which underlies the international system.
The Basque problem is characterised by the nationalist movements of the Basque society which is struggling for independence in Spain from the past to the present (the Basque society has been struggling for independence in Spain since 17th century) or who are working hard to achieve their special status. From the demands for privileges of the Basque separatist movement in Spain, the Basque problem is of great importance for the current Spanish political system.
In order to solve the problem, it is necessary to examine the mutual demands and solutions of Spain and the Basque Country. From this point of view, the Spanish Administration should be directed towards moderate policies and take into account the conditions of the region. The constitution must also guarantee individual and cultural rights. This study aims to observe the problems between the Basques and Spain historically and to understand the Basque ethnic phenomenon better.
Though the term “policy” has already been discussed extensively before, it appears to be in need of a critical review in meaning and context. In this essay, the criticism stems from the term “policy of the law”, which was introduced into the political science literature over 120 years ago by Leon Petrażycki, the outstanding creator of psychological theory of the law and the only world-known Polish lawyer. The term itself is false and incorrect as it’s equal to the term “policy of the policy”. Law is a political phenomenon cocreating policy. In addition, the concept of policy of the law is characterised by idealism bordering on naivety. Because of the place of L. Petrażycki in Polish tradition of the theory of law, references to his concept of policy of the law are made constantly in an attempt to apply this concept in scientific and practical considerations. It is time to leave it to the domain of history of legal theory.
Another criticism was brought about by the title of the third chapter of Polish Energy Law Act — “Energy Policy”. This entire act and a number of other legal acts regulating the acquisition of energy sources and energy management comprise energy policy. The energy policy also includes various types of programs, actions and decisions of the participants of energy policy. The criticism of the incompetent use of the term “energy policy” is an opportunity to stress the role of policy in the process of meeting human needs.
Thirdly, the term “policy” is determined by discussing an element of its structure: political thought. The essay presents the role of political thought in relation to economy, culture, independence, systems and other domains of human activity. The understanding of political thought as a reflection on policy or views on policy is questioned here. Political thought is not a reflection about the policy. Instead, political thought is a political decision which cocreates policy. It is a postulative decision resulting from scientific or common reflection on policy.
This study examines how populist politicians made sense of the issue of fake news. They generally consider fake news as a valuable propaganda tool for their political interests. According to the Reuters Digital News Report in 2018, Turkey ranks first on the list of countries where people complain about completely made-up stories. The study researched how fake news is helping facilitate the rise of populism in Turkey. There is plenty of fake news aired by pro-government media. Therefore, the Turkish government is emerging as a suspect behind the fake news cycle. The fact is that most of the fake news is published for the benefit of the government. Research shows that, paradoxically, President Recep Tayyip Erdogan is regarded as one of the most important populist politicians in the world. These two different indicators can be valuable data in revealing the relationship between fake news and populist politicians. The aim of this paper is to consider the significance of this apparent relationship between fake news and President Erdogan. In order to do this, a critical discourse analysis method was based on the fake news about the pastor Brunson case, because Turkish readers came across a huge amount of fake news regarding his case in pro-government media.