Browse

You are looking at 1 - 10 of 1,023 items for :

  • Political Science, other x
Clear All
Open access

Katherine Kirk and Ellen Bal

Abstract

This paper explores the relationship between migration and integration policies in the Netherlands, diaspora policies in India, and the transnational practices of Indian highly skilled migrants to the Netherlands. We employ anthropological transnational migration theories (e.g., Ong 1999; Levitt and Jaworsky 2007) to frame the dynamic interaction between a sending and a receiving country on the lives of migrants. This paper makes a unique contribution to migration literature by exploring the policies of both sending and receiving country in relation to ethnographic data on migrants. The international battle for brains has motivated states like the Netherlands and India to design flexible migration and citizenship policies for socially and economically desirable migrants. Flexible citizenship policies in the Netherlands are primarily concerned with individual and corporate rights and privileges, whereas Indian diaspora policies have been established around the premise of national identity.

Open access

Elena Dück and Robin Lucke

Abstract

After the November 2015 terror attacks in Paris, the French government reacted swiftly by declaring a state of emergency. This state of emergency remained in place for over two years before it was ended in November 2017, only after being replaced by the new anti-terror legislation. The attacks as well as the government’s reactions evoked parallels to 9/11 and its aftermath. This is a puzzling observation when taking into consideration that the Bush administration’s reactions have been criticized harshly and that the US ‘War on Terror’ (WoT) was initially considered a serious failure in France. We can assume that this adaption of the discourse and practices stems from a successful establishment of the WoT macro-securitization. By using Securitization Theory, we outline the development of this macro-securitization by comparing its current manifestation in France against the backdrop of its origins in the US after 9/11. We analysed securitizing moves in the discourses, as well as domestic and international emergency measure policies. We find extensive similarities with view of both; yet there are differing degrees of securitizing terrorism and the institutionalisation of the WoT in the two states. This suggests that the WoT narrative is still dominant internationally to frame the risk of terrorism as an existential threat, thus enabling repressive actions and the obstruction of a meaningful debate about the underlying problems causing terrorism in the first place.

Open access

Jared O’Neil Bell

Abstract

The concept and study of transitional justice has grown exponentially over the last decades. Since the Nuremberg and Tokyo trials after the end of the Second World War, there have been a number of attempts made across the globe to achieve justice for human rights violations (International Peace Institute 2013: 10). How these attempts at achieving justice impact whether or not societies reconcile, continues to be one of the key discussions taking place in a transitional justice discourse. One particular context where this debate continues to rage on is in Bosnia and Herzegovina, many scholars argue that the transitional justice process and mechanism employed in Bosnia and Herzegovina have not fostered inter-group reconciliation, but in fact caused more divisions. To this end, this article explores the context of transitional justice in Bosnia and Herzegovina from a unique perspective that focuses on the need for reconciliation and healing after transitional justice processes like war crime prosecutions. This article explores why the prosecuting of war criminals has not fostered reconciliation in Bosnia and Herzegovina and how the processes have divided Bosnian society further. Additionally, this article presents the idea of state-sponsored dialog sessions as a way of dealing with the past and moving beyond the divisions of retributive justice.

Open access

Martin Karas

Abstract

The recent debate over the Investor-State Dispute Settlement (ISDS) regimes of international arbitration has resulted in concerted efforts aimed mainly at protecting the rights of states to regulate, improving transparency of proceedings and eliminating inconsistency in decision making of the tribunals. While the existing scholarly work frequently addresses issues of the relationship between the existing investment regimes and good governance in general, increased attention is rarely paid to the effects that investment arbitration has on democratic practice. The article applies an “action-based” approach to democracy, in order to analyse the role that the ISDS regimes play in exacerbating conflicts between the local populations, foreign investors and governments. The analysis leads to a conclusion that the ISDS regimes create incentives for the governments and foreign investors to disregard sound democratic practice. The article represents an attempt to move the discussion about the ISDS regimes away from the question of legitimacy of the regimes to the question of the impacts that the regimes have in practice.

Open access

Petru Roşca, Gheorghe Olaru and Dorel Badea

Abstract

This paper presents a methodology to validate a virtual test procedure for vehicle gradeability performance. It is a test dedicated to both the civilian and military off-road vehicles, an 8 x 8 Armoured Personnel Carrier being selected for the purpose of the paper. TruckSim is the software used to implement the vehicle math model and the test procedure. The simulation results are compared with the experimental results for a 60 % gradient. The vehicle speed and the engine speed graphics, the statistical analyze, and the comparison between the simulation test animation and the experimental test movie are the methods applied to validate the virtual longitudinal slope test procedure.

Open access

Muhanned Al-Rawi

Abstract

Frequency hopping is used in different communications systems for its robustness by providing frequency diversity against jamming and interfering signals. Successful detection and demodulation of a frequency hopping signal is dependent on proper tuning to transmit frequency and time synchronization of the burst. The sequence of hop frequencies is generally determined by a Pseudo-Noise (PN) sequence and time synchronization is achieved using synchronization preambles in the transmit burst. Successful acquisition of the hop frequency sequence could be achieved when at least a single burst’s data is successfully decoded at the receiver. This paper studies the serial search code acquisition which is the first step of synchronization for frequency hopping spread spectrum (FHSS) system over Rician fading channel. Simulation results show the effect of fading channel on the code acquisition.

Open access

Ioan Sabin Sopa and Marcel Pomohaci

Abstract

The research started from the necessity of finding new ways to physical test the military students that are part of the military pentathlon 50 m race with obstacles team. The research methods used was the experiment method, using two groups: the first group was the control group and the second the experiment group. The experiment consisted in testing the students at: 50 m speed running, 800 m resistance running, push-ups, and specific testing like: 50 m swimming with obstacles, 8 km run in varied terrain.

The results of our investigation showed that calculation of the statistical significance of the differences between the averages of the two samples showed significant values at p>0.05, n-1, at the following parameters: running 800 m (t = 2.71> 2.13 - p = 0.05); push-ups (t = 3.01> 2.95 - p = 0.05); freestyle swimming 50m (t = 2.81> 2.13 - p = 0.05).

Open access

Elisabeta-Emilia Halmaghi and Mihai-Marcel Neag

Abstract

It has long been considered that the environment can withstand all the pressure exerted by human activities on it: extensive agriculture, pesticide use, strong industrialization, noxious gas emissions into the atmosphere, toxic product discharge into lakes, rivers, seas and oceans, massive deforestation to obtain new areas for housing or agriculture. The result was environmental and soil degradation, increased water and/or air pollution, climate change, biodiversity loss, the disappearance of plant and/or animal species, the depletion of some natural resources. These environmental changes have begun to be studied by specialists in the field, who have raised a flag to irreversible environmental changes.

The concept of “sustainable development” arose at a time when environmental issues were at the heart of political debate: sustainable development is seen as a complex and difficult issue to solve because there is a diversity of interests of different states. International agreements and cooperation from the point of view of globalization and economic harmonization have also had as their object the issues of sustainable development, by launching the attempt to reconcile the economy with the environment.

Open access

Maria-Lucia Rusu

Abstract

This approach examines the comparative relationship between persuasion at micro and macro-social level, under the framework of the comparative analysis method. In this sense, after identifying and presenting the concept of persuasion, the similarity of interpretation and persuasion techniques are emphasized. The study first addresses the epistemological and methodological aspect of the social connotations of persuasion. It has as main objectives to ensure the interpretation of the concept, to identify the strategies, to describe the mechanisms by which the persuasion in the public space is reconstructed and to discover the methods of resistance to this type of communication.

The usefulness of studying this type of communication results from the effects it has on the individual and its various inter-human relationships in the macro-social space.

Open access

Mohanad Abdulhamid and Mwaniki Muchai

Abstract

A multiple rank modulation (MRM) scheme is proposed that provides better error performance, enhances the data rate and reduces the system demodulation complexity. Multiple input multiple output (MIMO) scheme is a technique that uses several antennas at the transmitter and receiver to minimize error and optimize data speed. MRM is a novel technique that borrows from spatial modulation-MIMO (SM-MIMO) scheme. The basic idea of this scheme involves the transmitter receiving a group of bits and subdividing them into two blocks; rank index block and signal modulation block. The rank index bit block is used to select the rank to be activated and the rank selected contains at least one active transmit antenna (TA). The signal modulation bit block is encoded in a given modulation scheme for transmission. It is then transmitted through the activated rank that contains at least one active TA. The transmitted encoded signal modulation bit block is received through the receive antenna and a receiver. The receiver estimates a rank index and the transmitted symbol from the signal received. The signal modulation bit block is finally decoded. This paper addresses the performance of MRM scheme based on error performance to run cellular fifth generation (5G). We perform and present simulation results of MIMO systems employing MRM scheme to generate bit error rate (BER) of this system.