1 - 10 of 2,827 items :

  • Political Science x
Clear All


Chinese politics are characterized by the complex issues of a large population and centralized political powers, which offers a distinct political model from the Western models. However, the last two decades have witnessed a sharp collision between Chinese and Western political thinking. In response, domestic authors have increasingly focused on the indigenization (bentuhua 本土化) of Chinese political theories and, therefore, defend the concept of politics with Chinese characteristics. In this article, the authors focus on the discourse of “deliberative democracy” within the Chinese language, namely, Xieshang minzhu 协商 民主. In the current literature, almost no scholarly discussions have explored the semantics of the notion of Xieshang minzhu within Chinese politics. This article engages with this issue, both as a subject and a methodology, to better understand the political language that has been used in the official discourses in China1 by 1) establishing a textual corpus by collecting relevant data into the Chinese and English groups through keywords; 2) conducting a statistical analysis based on the Word Cloud and Diagram analyses; and 3) using Word2Vec to calculate the relationship among other sub-keywords. The purpose of this contribution is to differentiate Xieshang minzhu as adopted by Chinese official discourses embedded in the logic of political reforms from the Western discourses. The semantic analysis presented here also serves as a methodology that systematically develops a conceptual model of xieshang, which further clarifies the misconceptions and errors in the existing literature. The authors also provide an outline of the polysemic notion of deliberative democracy, which not only exists within an authoritarian regime but is also present in other forms and other languages (such as Chinese). This serves to further maintain the legitimacy of the “socialist democracy with Chinese characteristics.”



Official propaganda mainly includes five of China’s most authoritative official media (newspapers): People’s Daily (Renmin ribao 人民 日报), Guangming Daily (Guangming ribao 光明 日报), Xinhua Daily(Xinhua ribao 新华 日报), China Comment (Banyutan 半月谈), Qiushi (Qiushi 求是, formerly known as Red Flag (Hongqi 红旗)), Xi Jinping’s series of important speech databases and official documents on the subject of Xieshang or Xieshang minzhu in the Party-Building Database.


Firefighters have a demanding and difficult mission both physical and mental so their training must be rigorous and well prepared, therefore they should have good physical resistance, strength, speed, and coordination. Our study focuses on the 4 x 100 m race with obstacles and how should firefighters physically prepare for the race. We had two different samples that form the first and second team of ISU Sibiu in the competition of firefighters of 4 x 100 m race with obstacles, formed by 10 males with age of 30 ± 3.5 years old with experience in this kind of competitions between 2 and 7 years. We presented our training program and the effects on the results of our athletes and also analyze the efficiency of developing motor qualities such as strength, speed, resistance and coordination. The results show relatively good improvements in the performance time in any of the fourth exchanges and also in the motor qualities level. Conclusions of our research present the efficiency of training athletic skills and also the motor qualities in obtaining better results at the 4 x 100 m race with obstacles.


The topic addressed in this article is a current one and modern armies discuss it a lot and many analyses and comments can be made. In the article, the author presents the general framework of operations in the urban environment and starting from the operational requirements mandatory to conduct such operations he analyzes the prospects that such operations have in future military operations and proposes directions for action necessary for the effective training of the subunits within the Romanian Land Forces.


The author wants to talk about a new reality surrounds us, a new atmosphere, a new condition of life in the post-globalization era at the pandemic time of the coronavirus COVID-19. The pandemic, it is said, started from communist China with a centralized and at the same time globalized economy, but today the centre of all the global problems. This it is intended to be a first analysis where economics, politics and communication intertwine and interact with the health problem which has highlighted the weaknesses of a society which has been too busy for a long time to regulate GDP.


The process of identification of radioactive isotopes using gamma ray spectrum produced by scintillation detectors is a fundamental problem in physics. Military applications also require fast and efficient methods, especially in field conditions, for identifying unknown isotopes. The fundamental problem is the relationship between the observed gamma ray spectrum given by the detector and the real spectrum. This problem can be treated as a mathematical problem. The relationship between the real and the observed spectrum can be described by a linear algebraic equation system. In the previous article Cholesky-decomposition has been applied. In this article one more independent mathematical tool is proposed to solve the linear system efficiently.


University “Ovidius” of Constanța, Faculty of Medicine, in collaboration with the Diving Center, has conducted several research studies regarding the evolution of the vital functions of divers in the hyperbaric environment. Their breathing is constantly adapting to withstand the physiological changes. Reducing the residual volume of the lungs is an essential parameter for improving respiratory function in the event of increased physical effort. The residual volume cannot be determined by spirometry. The medical researchers and engineers developed an original test plan and verified the residual volume of the subjects, by experimental determinations on groups of divers, during simulated diving, with air, at 18 m, in the Hyperbaric Complex of the Diving Center. The study is useful in the prevention of occupational diseases specific to divers and in knowing their limits of adaptation to the hyperbaric environment.


Educational institutions all over the world realize the importance of promoting international cooperation. In order to stay competitive in such fields like education, research, innovations it is no longer enough to count on only internal resources. Exchange of experience, knowledge sharing, benchmarking provide possibilities for universities to constantly remain updated on modern know-hows.

New opportunities for improving the quality of higher education in Belarus are provided by different international programs and projects. Among them there is the project of the EU Program ERASMUS + CBHE “University Teaching and Learning Enhancement” / UniTeLE, which has been implemented since 2019. The project coordinator is Linnaeus University (Sweden).

In the framework of the ERASMUS + UniTeLE project, a consortium of Belarusian universities has conducted a higher education quality research. The purpose of this research is to identify areas for improving the quality of higher education in Belarus.

The research was carried out on the basis of a sociological survey of a representative sampling of teachers, staff and students of six Belarusian universities (more than 350 respondents from Minsk, Gomel, Brest, Gorki, Polotsk, Grodno were interviewed). Both SWOT analysis of higher education quality in Belarus and focus group of possible improvement were performed. The discussion was attended by work groups of 25 leaders, teachers and students from each of the Belarusian universities of the project consortium.

The following fundamental research results should be noted. Among the strengths of Belarusian universities are: specialization in the regions, the system of additional adult education, and practical experience of teachers (2/3 of respondents). 58% of respondents are confident in the advantages of innovative educational technologies used by teachers, 47% indicated a low intensity of innovation implementation. Respondents noted the high level of Hard Skills competencies of the teaching staff and insufficiently of Soft Skills competencies for both teachers and students. The respondents identified outdated educational technologies and methods and the content of curricula as the fundamental weakness of Belarusian education.

The following areas of quality improvement have been identified as the most important for Belarusian universities:

  1. -the development of Soft Skills competencies of both teachers and students to provide their close interaction;
  2. -the development of Soft Skills competencies among students to provide their close interaction with employers (the development of job search skills, entrepreneurial activity);
  3. -the introduction of active teaching and learning methods, the development of interactive educational technologies;
  4. -the inсlusion of students in the process of education quality internal assessment;
  5. -systematic assessment of teachers, including the process of applying for a job, teacher academic development planning (HR management).

For the practical improvement in the suggested areas, it is advisable to create Life Long Learning Centres and Centres of Academic Development of teachers in Belarusian universities, as well as a student-oriented quality assessment system. To improve the quality and competitiveness of Belarusian education, it is also advisable to develop international cooperation and networking among universities. The positive experience of such projects as TEMPUS ECOTESY, ERASMUS + UniTeLE, ERASMUS + BELL and others, can contribute to such cooperation and interaction.


This paper addresses the issue of Czech small critically indebted municipalities, which has been neglected in the European discourse after successful European consolidation reforms. The Czech Republic is one of the Central European countries where there is no relevant debate on the mandatory amalgamation of small municipalities that are often faced with a combination of multiple risk factors.

This paper aims to analyze a sample of the Czech municipalities that are threatened by a combination of their small size and critical indebtedness. A research of the sample focuses on a) the identification of the reasons for critical indebtedness, b) the impact of critical indebtedness on the delivery of services and local democracy and c) the options and strategies to overcome the issues related to critical indebtedness.

Methodologically, the paper is a multiple-case study of three small critically indebted municipalities of the Karlovy Vary region, which was considered the worst region in 2012 in terms of the share of critically indebted municipalities, with several long-term critically indebted municipalities on its territory. Based on the media monitoring and economic criteria, the municipalities of Prameny, Bublava and Nebanice have been chosen.

The main finding of our research is the identification of so-called endangered chains: 1) small municipalities with low revenues resulting in 2) limited administrative and expert capacity that contributes to 3) a mistake in a large investment project resulting in 4) the economic collapse of the municipality that endangers the provision of services, and in the case of 5) insufficient social capital this can lead to agony of local self-government and the collapse of the municipality. According to the findings, the examined municipalities of Nebanice and Bublava correspond to the chain link 4, and in the case of Prameny it is possible to speak about the chain link 5.


In this article, we introduce the Evaluation Board (EB-NdV) task in the AVA system (Accreditamento, Valutazione e Auto-valutazione). The AVA was implemented in 2013 in the Italian University System according to the document called “European Standards and Guidelines for Quality Assurance in the European Higher Education Area (ESG)”. The ENQA’s guidelines (2005) provide for the construction of a common European area dedicated to university and post-university. In the University, the three main actors involved in the Quality Assurance (QA) system are the Evaluation Board (Nucleo di Valutazione, EB-NdV), the University Quality Board (PQ) and the Joint Student-Teacher Commission (CP). The EB-NdV has documented functions of evaluation and monitoring of the QA system, designed by the PQ following the strategic guidelines of the governing bodies of the university institution. The EB-NdV works as Independent Assessment Body (OIV) too. This task regards the assessment procedures concerning structures and human resources dedicated to the administrative support of the core activities of the universities. The EB-NdV draws up an Annual Report related to the AVA system. In conclusion the EB-NdV evaluates the QA system of the University in its entirety and in all its aspects. Moreover, the EB-NdV evaluates the relationships between the University Quality Board and the Joint Student-Teacher Commission (CP).


Recent days there are many projects of UAV urban applications, moreover, although in different habited area. Several concepts like urban drone taxi, flying boards, flying bikes, etc. are in phase of prototype system test and evaluation. As part of the modern robotization, UAVs are in the focus of attention of numerous scientists. UAVs, as special platforms are widely used by the Military in different scenarios and different flight missions. Capabilities of UAVs used in non-military applications (i.e. Police applications, disaster management applications, border control, firefighter applications, etc.) will serve well the idea of UAV 3D (Dirty-Dull-Dangerous) application. The purpose of the author is to derive those low altitude UAV flight regimes when low altitude flight automation in necessary due to flight safety aspects, or, due to any existing regulations, and, finally, find and propose flight paths of the UAV better fitting given mission of the UAV.