The article discusses the problem of people who are working, but struggle with poverty. The phenomenon of ‘working poor’ is subjected to a taxonomic analysis, in which the subjective scope is limited to selected European states and the time span to the last twelve years. The aim of the article is to show the relation between work and poverty on European labour markets, including clarifying the level and structure of ‘working poor’. In order to achieve such a research goal, the results of The European Union Statistics on Income and Living Conditions were used, and thanks to the information obtained from the Eurostat database, it was possible to carry out comparable statistical analyses. On the basis of the obtained results, it can be concluded that the working poor phenomenon exists in Europe and in future may get stronger and pose a serious challenge for European labour markets.
René Matlovič, Radoslav Klamár, Ján Kozoň, Monika Ivanová and Miloslav Michalko
The paper focuses on the evaluation of some aspects of the spatial organization of economic development of regions in the V4 countries after their accession to the EU. It focuses on the confirmation or confutation of the application of two principles of spatial organization based on the context of polarization theories, namely the polarity between western and eastern regions (i.e. the West–East gradient) and the polarity between the capital and other regions of the country (i.e. the national metropolitan gradient) at national and supranational levels. In the evaluation of the spatial polarity, the remoteness of various regions of the V4 countries from the economic core area (the Blue Banana, respectively the capital of the country) acts as the independent variable, whereby two economic indicators, i.e. the average monthly wage and the unemployment rate were chosen as the dependent variables. The analysis showed that on the supranational scale of the research in the monitored period, the increase of spatial polarisation was recorded. The increasing role of the West–East gradient and declining role of the national metropolitan gradient in the dynamics of spatial polarity has also been confirmed. The analysis has not confirmed the scale shift of polarity according to the West–East gradient to the national level, but at the same time it has pointed out the significant influence of the national metropolitan gradient in Slovakia, the Czech Republic and Hungary at this assessment level.
The article presents the results of research devoted to comparing accessibility in terms of theoretical and real travel times by car at inter-regional, intra-regional and intra-urban scales. The research strives to achieve three types of aim. The methodological aim is to assess the suitability of the data for research into transport geography, in particular with regard to accessibility. This objective also focuses on developing a method for acquiring and processing source data from suppliers. The cognitive goal is to analyse the spatial differentiation of theoretical and real travel times at different spatial scales. In terms of application, the focus is on the use of real travel time data for transport planning. Data on theoretical travel times includes the author’s own calculations based on analyses whose key assumption is that cars move on a road network at the maximum speeds allowed by the law with all other variables being excluded. The other source of data (on real travel times) is the Distance Matrix Response provided by Google Maps APIs. Due to methods such as isochrones and cumulative accessibility it was concluded that data obtained from Google servers is highly useful for research into transport geography, including time accessibility analyses. The patterns presented here however cannot be treated uncritically or used for unrestricted analysis. With regard to the cognitive goal, it should be emphasized that spatial variations in travel differences, resulting from theoretical and real variants for journeys between regional cities in Poland, between settlement units within one region, or within one of its large cities, are heterogeneous depending on the nature and length of the journey. Therefore, depending on the spatial extent of analysis, divergences in travel times should be expected.
Faith Lawrence and Christian M. Rogerson
Local economic development agencies (LEDAs) are increasingly important actors in place-based local economic development particularly in the global South. In South Africa there has been an expanded role for LEDAs in terms of the policy significance of local economic development. Although considerable research has been undertaken concerning the merits, challenges and contributions of LED in South Africa only limited material is available concerning the institutional and organisational arrangements to support the implementation of LED. Using policy documents, close engagement with the key national policy-making government departments and a national survey of the activities, operational challenges, and institutional constraints facing LEDAs, the findings from this investigation provide new insight into their role in place-based development. From the unfolding South African experience the strategic establishment of LEDAs potentially can contribute to maximizing the efficiency of place-based strategies. Arguably, key findings confirm the important contribution that LEDAs can make to locality development in the global South albeit that contribution is influenced by context realities.
Latent class analysis has been widely used in the measurement models. Models based on latent variables have a wide range of applications in the presence of repeated ob-servations, longitudinal data, and multilevel data. In this paper we present and apply log-linear analysis as a method for the analysis of multi-way tables. We also present a latent variable model based on a variable that is not directly observed. The basic model postulates an underlying categorical latent variable; within any category of the latent variable the manifest or observed categorical variables are assumed independent of one another (axiom of conditional independence). In this paper we present the results of a survey research based on categorical data and the author`s questionnaire. We present the results of the latent class analysis in the classification of respondents into clusters characterized by similar attitudes and features in economic research. We also conduct a prior log-linear analysis for a multi-way contingency table. All the calculations are conducted in R.
Maria M. Grzelak, Iwona Laskowska and Elżbieta Roszko-Wójtowicz
In contemporary research and economic discussions, a great deal of attention is paid to issues concerning the relationship between competitiveness and research and development (R&D) activity. The measurement and assessment of the impact of R&D activity are extremely difficult but at the same time very important, in particular for authorities determining the level of expenditure on R&D and the method of spending public funds as well as for enterprises assessing the expected profits derived from R&D. The main aim of the article is an attempt to quantify the impact of R&D expenditure on three selected characteristics defining the competitiveness of manufacturing enterprises (gross value added, sold production and labour productivity). The analysis was carried out using panel models. The study makes use of statistical data published by the Central Statistical Office for individual divisions of manufacturing (Section C of the Polish Classification of Activities - PKD) in the years 2009-2016. The conducted analyses indicate that R&D expenditure constitutes a significant determinant of the competitiveness of the analysed divisions of manufacturing.
Artur Mikulec and Małgorzata Misztal
The article presents the results of the duration analysis for 21,163 enterprises (natural persons conducting economic activity) established in the Łódzkie Voivodship in 2010 and observed until December 31, 2015. The Kaplan-Meier estimation of the survival function, the Cox proportionalhazards model and the recursive partitioning method (the CTree algorithm) are applied to achieve the goal of the conducted research i.e. to answer the following question: does the type of business activity and location of the enterprise affect its duration? Prediction error curves based on the bootstrap crossvalidation estimates of the prediction error are used to assess and compare predictions obtained from all three models. On the basis of the analysis results it can be assumed that the type of business activity makes firms more varied due to their duration compared to their location.
Jakub Taczanowski, Arkadiusz Kołoś, Krzysztof Gwosdz, Bolesław Domański and Robert Guzik
The aim of the paper is to identify the main factors and mechanisms behind the development of low-emission public transport vehicles in Polish cities. This innovation is primarily connected with growing environmental requirements for transport, with the EU environmental and transport policies being the key factors. However, strategies of local governments and municipal transport companies as well as the organization of urban transport - which differs significantly between cities - also play an important role. Three basic types of approach towards low-emission buses can be observed in Polish cities: tests of electric and hybrid vehicles, purchases of small quantities of buses in order to implement new solutions, and finally attempts to replace the majority or even the entire transport fleet with low-emission vehicles. It should be emphasised that an important element which affects the development of low emission public urban transport in Poland is the fact that the country has become one of the main bus producers in Europe - a fact which is a result of both large-scale foreign investments and the success of Polish manufacturers.
Małgorzata Flaga and Monika Wesołowska
Eastern regions of Poland are regarded as areas where numerous unfavourable socio-economic phenomena appear and accumulate. These are the results of historical conditions as well as post-war border localization and various processes, primarily in terms of economy. The consequences of the political transformation of the state in the 1990s and profound social and economic changes in recent decades are also crucial drivers of many disadvantageous changes in the region. The article shows population processes which can be recognized nowadays in Eastern Poland, and the attention of the authors is focused on the peripheral rural areas of the region. General tendencies reported in the text are based on the cases from the Lubelskie Voivodeship where concentration of the demographic and social problems is particularly noticeable. The analyses comprise changes of population growth and its components (natural movement and migration), population structures as well as some characteristics concerning the quality and conditions of inhabitants’ lives. The main causes of negative processes shaping the population, including domestic, regional and micro-regional factors, are also presented. The final part of the article deals with the most important outcomes of population changes which are reflected in the progressing ageing of society, the decline of villages and social infrastructure, among other facts. These unfavourable phenomena are shown in the context of the future development of the region.