The present study aims to calculate a new database of conversion coefficients from fluence and air Kerma to personal dose equivalent in two terms: absorbed dose and Kerma-approximations. In this work, we propose a new equation to perform an analytical fit of our Monte Carlo (MC) calculated conversion coefficients for photons for different angles. Also, we have calculated the conversion coefficients using the EGSnrc code. The conversion coefficients have been calculated for beams of monoenergetic photons from 0.015 to 10 MeV, incident on phantom ICRU for angles of incidence from 0° to a 75° in steps of 15°. Our computed values agree well when compared with those published for the ICRU 57 in Kerma-approximations with statistical uncertainties in the calculation around 2%. We can conclude from this work that the analytical approach is successful and powerful such as Monte Carlo methods to calculate the operational quantities.
The purpose of this work was to develop and validate a Monte Carlo model for a Dual Source Computed Tomography (DSCT) scanner based on the Monte Carlo N-particle radiation transport computer code (MCNP5). The geometry of the Siemens Somatom Definition CT scanner was modeled, taking into consideration the x-ray spectrum, bowtie filter, collimator, and detector system. The accuracy of the simulation from the dosimetry point of view was tested by calculating the Computed Tomography Dose Index (CTDI) values. Furthermore, typical quality assurance phantoms were modeled in order to assess the imaging aspects of the simulation. Simulated projection data were processed, using the MATLAB software, in order to reconstruct slices, using a Filtered Back Projection algorithm. CTDI, image noise, CT-number linearity, spatial and low contrast resolution were calculated using the simulated test phantoms. The results were compared using several published values including IMPACT, NIST and actual measurements. Bowtie filter shapes are in agreement with those theoretically expected. Results show that low contrast and spatial resolution are comparable with expected ones, taking into consideration the relatively limited number of events used for the simulation. The differences between simulated and nominal CT-number values were small. The present attempt to simulate a DSCT scanner could provide a powerful tool for dose assessment and support the training of clinical scientists in the imaging performance characteristics of Computed Tomography scanners.
Aim: To conduct a study on the effect of random setup errors inpatient for dose delivery in Intensity Modulated Radiotherapy plans using Octavius 4D phantom.
Materials and methods: 11 patients with cancer of H&N were selected for this study. An IMRT plan was created for each patient. The IMRT quality assurance plans were transferred to Mosaiq workstation in a linear accelerator. These plans were delivered at the reference treatment position. Subsequently, the QA plans were delivered on the Octavius 4D phantom after introducing errors in various translational and rotational directions. The setup inaccuracies introduced varied from 1 mm to 5 mm along X, Y. These setup uncertainties were then introduced along X and Y direction simultaneously in equal measures. Similarly, IMRT plans were delivered also after introducing roll and yaw rotation of 1, 2 and 3 degrees in phantom. The deviation of gamma indices at all these positions was analyzed with respect to the reference setup position.
Results: The percentage of points passing the gamma acceptance criterion decrease as we increase the setup error. The change is found to be very insignificant with setup error up to 2 mm along X, Y or XY direction. Similarly, the rotational error of up to 3 degrees is found to be acceptable.
Conclusions: Small setup (< 2 mm) correction in patients may not adversely affect the dose delivery. But an error of similar magnitude in 2 directions simultaneously has a much greater impact on IMRT dose delivery.
In the present paper, some imaging properties of nanoparticles-based contrast agents including gold, bismuth, and silver were assessed and compared with conventional (iodinated) contrast agent in spectral computed tomography (CT). A spectral CT scanner with photon-counting detectors (PCD) and 6 energy bins was simulated using the Monte Carlo (MC) simulation method. The nanoparticles were designed with a diameter of 50 nm at concentrations of 2, 4, and 8 mg/ml. Water-filled cylindrical phantom was modeled with a diameter of 10 cm containing a hole with a diameter of 5 cm in its center, where was filled with contrast agents. The MC results were used to reconstruct images. Image reconstruction was accomplished with the filtered back-projection (FBP) method with hamming filter and linear interpolation method. CT number and contrast-to-noise ratio (CNR) of all studied contrast materials were calculated in spectral images. The simulations indicated that nanoparticle-based contrast agents have a higher CT number and CNR than the iodinated contrast agent at the same concentration and for all energy bins. In general, gold nanoparticles produced the highest CT number and CNR compared to silver and bismuth nanoparticles at the same concentration. However, at low energies (below 80 keV), silver nanoparticles performed similarly to gold nanoparticles and at high energies (120 keV), bismuth nanoparticles can be a good substitute for gold nanoparticles.
According to the Google I/O 2018 key notes, in future artificial intelligence, which also includes machine learning and deep learning, will mostly evolve in healthcare domain. As there are lots of subdomains which come under the category of healthcare domain, the proposed paper concentrates on one such domain, that is breast cancer and pneumonia. Today, just classifying the diseases is not enough. The system should also be able to classify a particular patient’s disease. Thus, this paper shines the light on the importance of multi spectral classification which means the collection of several monochrome images of the same scene. It can be proved to be an important process in the healthcare areas to know if a patient is suffering from a specific disease or not. The convolutional layer followed by the pooling layer is used for the feature extraction process and for the classification process; fully connected layers followed by the regression layer are used.
The imperative use of ionizing radiation in medicine causes the inevitable occupational exposure of the medical workers during the course of routine duties. The magnitude of health risk due to such radiation exposures has been described in terms of occupational radiation doses. In this context, it is obligatory to monitor, measure and document the radiation dose of occupationally exposed medical workers. This study aims to review the whole-body occupational radiation exposures of medical workers in Pakistan. Specifically, online literature published during 2000-2018 was reviewed for the occupational radiation exposures of Pakistani medical workers. Analysis of the extracted personal dosimetry data revealed that the total number of monitored medical occupational workers was 26046. The range of total cumulative and annual average effective doses was 94-15785 Person-mSv and 0.66-7.37 mSv, respectively. A significant number of the workers (25477; ~98%) received an annual dose below 5 mSv, while only 18 workers received an occupational exposure exceeding the annual dose limit of 20 mSv. It is expected that this study will provide a useful reference for evaluating and improving radiation protection and safety policies in the country.
Irreversible electroporation (IRE) is a process in which the cell membrane is damaged and leads to cell death. IRE has been used as a minimally invasive ablation tool. This process is affected by some factors. The most important factor is the electric field distribution inside the tissue. The electric field distribution depends on the electric pulse parameters and tissue properties, such as the electrical conductivity of tissue. The present study focuses on evaluating the tissue conductivity change due to high-frequency and low-voltage (HFLV) as well as low-frequency and high-voltage (LFHV) pulses during irreversible electroporation. We were used finite element analysis software, COMSOL Multiphysics 5.0, to calculate the conductivity change of the liver tissue. The HFLV pulses in this study involved 4000 bipolar and monopolar pulses with a frequency of 5 kHz, pulse width of 100 µs, and electric field intensity from 100 to 300 V/cm. On the other hand, the LFHV pulses, which we were used, included 8 bipolar and monopolar pulses with a frequency of 1 Hz, the pulse width of 2 ms and electric field intensity of 2500 V/cm. The results demonstrate that the conductivity change for LFHV pulses due to the greater electric field intensity was higher than for HFLV pulses. The most significant conclusion is the HFLV pulses can change tissue conductivity only in the vicinity of the tip of electrodes. While LFHV pulses change the electrical conductivity significantly in the tissue of between electrodes.
An estimate of patient dose, patient size should be used to normalise the output dose of CT machine in the terms of volume CT dose index, CTDIvol. There are two metrics to characterise the patient size, i.e. the effective diameter (Deff) and the water-equivalent diameter (Dw). These two metrics could be estimated by patient age. However, to date, relationships between the age and head patient size (Deff and Dw) have not been established for the pediatric patients. The aim of this study was to establish the relationships between the age and head patient size (Deff and the Dw) as the basis for calculating the size-specific dose estimate (SSDE) for paediatric head CT examination. The data were retrospectively collected from serial images of the CT head in the DICOM file from one hundred and thirteen paediatric patients aged 0-17 years (63 male and 50 female patients) underwent head CT examinations. The patient’s sizes (Deff and Dw) were calculated from the patient’s images using the IndoseCT version 15a software. The Deff and Dw values were correlated with age of patients using regression analysis. It was found that patient size (Deff and Dw) correlated well with the age of the patient with R2 more than 0.8. The size of the Dw is bigger than the Deff. The Deff values for male patients are 12.38 to 16.21 cm, and Dw values are 11.96 to 18.16 cm, respectively. For female patients, the values of Deff are from 11.54 to 16.87 cm, and the values of Dw are from 11.60 to 17.86 cm, respectively.
Biomedical accelerators used in radiotherapy are equipped with detector arrays which are commonly used to obtain the image of patient position during the treatment session. These devices use both kilovolt and megavolt x-ray beams. The advantage of EPID (Electronic Portal Imaging Device) megavolt panels is the correlation of the measured signal with the calibrated dose. The EPID gives a possibility to verify delivered dose. The aim of the study is to answer the question whether EPID can be useful as a tool for interfraction QC (quality control) of dose and geometry repeatability.
The EPID system has been calibrated according to the manufacturer’s recommendations to obtain a signal and dose values correlation. Initially, the uncertainty of the EPID matrix measurement was estimated. According to that, the detecting sensitivity of two parameters was checked: discrepancies between the planned and measured dose and field geometry variance. Moreover, the linearity of measured signal-dose function was evaluated.
In the second part of the work, an analysis of several dose distributions was performed. In this study, the analysis of clinical cases was limited to stereotactic dynamic radiotherapy. Fluence maps were obtained as a result of the dose distribution measurements with the EPID during treatment sessions. The compatibility of fluence maps was analyzed using the gamma index. The fluence map acquired during the first fraction was the reference one. The obtained results show that EPID system can be used for interfraction control of dose and geometry repeatability.
The aim of the current research was to study the radiation shielding properties of polyurethane-based shielding materials filled with B4C, BeO, WO3, ZnO, and Gd2O3 particles against fast neutrons. The macroscopic cross sections of composites containing micro- and nanoparticles with a diameter of 10 µm and 50 nm were calculated using MCNPX (2.6.0) Monte Carlo code. The results showed that adding nano-scaled fillers to polyurethane matrix increases attenuation properties of neutron shields compared to micro-scaled fillers for intermediate and fast neutrons. Among the studied composites, WO3 and Gd2O3 nano-composites presented higher neutron cross section compared to others.