C. Iheduru, M. A. Eleruja, B. Olofinjana, O. E. Awe and A.D.A Buba
We have explored the effectiveness of Geant4 by using it to simulate phonon conduction in Sn Host with Si Nanowire Interface. Our Monte Carlo Simulation shows that the effectiveness of the phonon conduction Geant4 simulation increases when the system attained a steady state of 100 time steps. We have simulated phonon conduction in Sn host with Si nanowire interface using a Geant4Condensed Matter Physics Monte Carlo simulation toolkit in a low cost and less powerful processing computer machine. In the simulation, phonons were displaced inside a computation domain from their initial positions with the velocities and direction vectors assigned to them. A time step was selected so that a phonon can move at most the length of one sub-cell in one time step. Our phonon conduction analysis of SiSn based alloy using Geant4 showed performance enhancement and reasonable predicted thermal values. Numerical predictions of the thermal profile simulations of the values of the temperature in each cell were all within ten percent of the average temperature of Silicon – Tin.
In this paper we study the Dirac equation in the geometry of a (regular) Bardeen black hole. We will focus on finding new analytical solutions in the vicinity of the black hole horizon. These solutions can be used with the asymptotic solutions (derived in a previous paper) to compute numerical phase shifts that define the scattering amplitudes.
Daniel Ursu, Anamaria Dabici, Melinda Vajda, Neli-Camelia Bublea, Narcis Duteanu and Marinela Miclau
Cuprous oxide with different morphologies (3D hierarchical structure consisting of the micrometer dendritic rods and the porous truncated octahedrons) has been successfully synthesized via a facile one-step hydrothermal method using copper (II) acetate and ethyl cellulose as reactants. The p-type dye-sensitized solar cell based on the micrometer porous structure exhibits approximately 15% increase in JSC and VOC than 3D hierarchical structure. This enhancement could be explained by the high dye loading capacity of this porous structure and lowering the recombination process at the oxide/dye/electrolyte interface.
The need for adequate solar radiation is ever increasing for various applications. However there is an inadequate data of solar radiation in many countries due to the cost of instrument set up. Hence this study investigates two models for estimating solar radiation from routinely measured meteorological parameters. The data were obtained from the International Institute of Tropical Agriculture, Ibadan. The regression coefficients of the quadratic models were determined and used to estimate the global solar radiation for both forward and backward predictions. Their predictive accuracies were compared with four other models and the measured values using standard statistical error indicators. The results showed for forward as compared to backward predictions in bracket root mean square errors 1.2 (1.1); mean bias errors 1.1 (0.8) and mean percentage errors -4.8% (-2.9%) while for backward prediction 1.9 (1.7), 1.7 (1.4) and 7.9% (2.2%) measured in KJm−2day−1 respectively. A positive error value shows an over estimation while a negative value shows an under estimation. The models are versatile for estimating global solar radiation at the horizontal surface, fixing missing data and correcting outliers.
Camelia Liliana Moldovan, Radu Paltanea and Ion Visa
The solar irradiance is the main input parameter when designing solar energy conversion systems. A poor accuracy of the solar irradiance simulation models negatively affect the output energy and the durability of the solar energy conversion system. In the paper, the measured values of the direct solar irradiance in the entire month of July 2016 are analysed and, based on the daily received direct solar energy and the variability of the direct solar irradiance, the days are classified in four categories: clear sky days, partially clear sky days, partially cloudy days and cloudy days. Based on this classification, only four clear sky days were identified in July 2016. The same procedure was applied for the months of July 2013, 2014 and 2015 resulting 13 clear sky days in the entire monitoring period of four years (2013-2016). The measured values of the direct solar irradiance in these 13 selected clear sky days are comparatively analysed against the direct solar irradiance simulated with Meliss clear sky model. Further on, a statistical analysis is performed for the time interval 8:00-16:00 to evaluate absolute, relative and root mean square errors between the measured and simulated values. The results show that the simulation model overestimates, in eleven out of the thirteen clear sky days, the solar direct irradiance in the central part of the day. The measurements were performed in the Renewable Energy Systems and Recycling (RESREC) Research Centre located in the R&D Institute of the Transilvania University of Brasov, Romania.
This paper presents models/strategies for optimum performance of solar collector in closed loop systems. These models aim to maximize the obtained energy by thermal conversion of solar energy. The mass flow rate of the fluid from the primary circuit of the system is the control parameter. The semi empirical models and optimal control methods are in brief presented. The volume of the storage tank is important and the ratio Vs/Ac between this volume and area of the collectors is a key factor in appropriate sizing of the DHW system. Therefore, the paper establishes a relationship between this ratio and the mass flow rate of the fluid in the collector This paper also analyses the variation of the energetic performance (useful heat flux transferred to the storage tank, heat flux transferred to the water, water temperature in the storage tank) with the volume of the storage tank. Analysis was performed on an extensive set of meteorological data from Timisoara, Romania, with instantaneous data (measured at 15 seconds) for summer days, from July 2009, with different relative sunshine values, σ. Important differences have been observed between days with different stability levels - days more or less stable.
The paper is focused on the solar irradiance estimation in clear-sky conditions and an aerosol-loaded atmosphere. Two parametric models developed by our group and three empirical models are tested. The estimates of the parametric models are based on three atmospheric parameters (ozone, nitrogen dioxide and water vapor column content) and the aerosol properties quantified by means of several specific parameters (Ångström turbidity coefficient, single scattering albedo, asymmetry factor). The empirical models contain no inputs for aerosol properties. Data collected from 10 stations were used to test the models. The inputs for the parametric models were retrieved from Aerosol Robotic Network - AERONET. Global and diffuse solar irradiance data at high-quality standards were retrieved from the Baseline Surface Radiation Network BSRN. A comparative analysis of the models’ accuracy in estimating clear-sky solar irradiance is discussed from the perspective of aerosol proprieties.
A precise estimation of the electrical energy produced daily by photovoltaic (PV) systems is important both for PV owners and for electrical grid operators. It can be achieved if the received solar irradiance can be accurately estimated during any type of daily solar profile (clear, cloudy, mixed sky), not only average solar profile for larger periods of time, e.g. one month or season, as used in PV system design. The paper firstly describes an existing mathematical model, based on the Meliss approach, which uses mean monthly coefficients for estimating average direct and diffuse solar irradiance. This model is satisfactory for monthly/annual intervals but is not useful for daily estimations. Therefore in the second part of the paper an algorithm which allows to generate daily variations of the model’s coefficients for clear and cloudy sky conditions is proposed. The improved model with variable coefficients was tested during several representative days and can be used for estimating the effect which different meteorological conditions as fog/dew/frost have on the quantity and quality of the solar irradiance received by a PV convertor.
Ioana Tismanar, Maria Covei, Cristina Bogatu and Anca Duta
Photocatalytic degradation of organic pollutants from wastewater using titanium dioxide is recognized as an efficient process. To be feasible, this process needs to be solar- or visible light -activated, but, due to its wide band gap energy, titanium dioxide can only be activated by ultraviolet radiation. In this paper, thin films of titanium dioxide were deposited by Spray Pyrolysis Deposition using organo-metallic (titanium-iso-propoxide) and inorganic (titanium chloride) precursors, as a first step in optimizing the deposition process of titanium dioxide - carbon composite thin films, active in the visible spectral range. The thin films were characterized to outline the differences when using these two precursor solutions, when deposited on Fluorine doped Tin Oxide-glass, regular glass and microscopic glass, in terms of crystallinity (by using X-ray diffraction), elemental composition (using Energy Dispersive X-ray spectrometry), surface morphology (Scanning Electronic Microscopy and Atomic Force Microscopy). The photocatalytic activity of the titanium dioxide thin films was investigated based on the removal efficiencies of methylene blue from a synthetically prepared wastewater. The samples deposited using the inorganic precursor show higher roughness, and this proves to be the most important factor that influences the phocatalytic processes. After 8 hours of ultraviolet irradiation, methylene blue removal efficiencies up to 36% were observed; the highest removal efficiency was registered using the thin titanium dioxide film obtained using the titanium chloride precursor, deposited on fluorine doped tin oxide glass substrate, due to the titanium dioxide-tin dioxide semiconductor tandem formed at the interface, that limits the electron-hole recombination, thus increasing the photoctalytic performance of the substrate.