Katarzyna Tymińska, Michał A. Gryziński and Maciej Maciak
A model of REM-2-type chamber was modeled with MCNPX code to study the dose-response to monoenergetic neutrons in wide energy range from thermal to 20 MeV for various compositions of gas in the chamber. The energy dependence of the total dose absorbed in the filling gas was compared with the energy dependence of ambient absorbed dose D*(10) and with experimental data. The results of the studies will be useful for designing new, improved generation of recombination chambers.
Karolina P. S. Costa, Sergio X. Lima, Tercio Brum, Zelmo R. Lima, Jose C. C. Amorim, Matthew J. F. Healy, Helio C. Vital, Matjaž Prah and Edson R. Andrade
A release of radioactive material into the environment can lead to hazardous exposure of the population and serious future concerns about health issues such as an increased incidence of cancer. In this context, a practical methodology capable of providing useful basic information from the scenario can be valuable for immediate decisions and future risk assessment. For this work, the simulation of a radiological dispersal device (RDD) filled with americium-241 was considered. The radiation dose simulated by the HotSpot code was used as an input to the epidemiological equations from BEIR V producing the data used to assess the risk of lung cancer development. The methodology could be useful in providing training for responders aimed to the initial support addressed to decision-making for emergency response at the early phase of an RDD scenario. The results from the simulation allow estimating (a) the size of the potentially affected population, (b) the type of protection action considering gender and location of the individuals, (c) the absorbed doses, (d) the matrix of lung cancer incidence predictions over a period of 5 years, and (e) the cost-effectiveness in the initial decision environment.
Zuhair, Suwoto, Topan Setiadipura and Jim C. Kuijper
As a crucial core physics parameter, the control rod reactivity has to be predicted for the control and safety of the reactor. This paper studies the control rod reactivity calculation of the pebble-bed reactor with three scenarios of UO2, (Th,U)O2, and PuO2 fuel type without any modifications in the configuration of the reactor core. The reactor geometry of HTR-10 was selected for the reactor model. The entire calculation of control rod reactivity was done using the MCNP6 code with ENDF/B-VII library. The calculation results show that the total reactivity worth of control rods in UO2-, (U,Th)O2-, and PuO2-fueled cores is 15.87, 15.25, and 14.33%Δk/k, respectively. These results prove that the effectiveness of total control rod in thorium and uranium cores is almost similar to but higher than that in plutonium cores. The highest reactivity worth of individual control rod in uranium, thorium and plutonium cores is 1.64, 1.44, and 1.53%Δk/k corresponding to CR8, CR1, and CR5, respectively. The other results demonstrate that the reactor can be safely shutdown with the control rods combination of CR3+CR5+CR8+CR10, CR2+CR3+CR7+CR8, and CR1+CR3+CR6+CR8 in UO2-, (U,Th)O2-, and PuO2-fueled cores, respectively. It can be concluded that, even though the calculation results are not so much different, however, the selection of control rods should be considered in the pebble-bed core design with different scenarios of fuel type.
Shell model calculations have been carried out for 90Nb nucleus with the model space in which the valence protons occupy the f5/2, p3/2, p1/2, and g9/2 orbitals and the valence neutrons occupy the p1/2, g9/2, d5/2, and g7/2 orbitals. According to the calculated results, the negative parity is from the contribution of the proton of the f5/2, p3/2, and p1/2 orbits. The moderate spin states of 90Nb are mainly due to the excitation of protons from the f5/2 and p3/2 orbits to the p1/2 and g9/2 orbits across the Z = 38 subshell closure, and the high spin states arise from the excitation of a single neutron from the g9/2 orbit into the d5/2 orbit across the N = 50 shell closure.
Grzegorz P. Guzik, Wacław Stachowicz and Jacek Michalik
The stable EPR signal produced by ionizing radiation in crystalline D-mannose (C6H12O6) and separated from cranberries (Vaccinium oxycoccus) was studied. The isothermal heating of irradiated sample at 95°C for 10 minutes (melting point of D-mannose is 132°C) resulted in the modification and simplification of the EPR signal involved. The isotropic quartet has been recognized in the EPR signal of heat-treated sample. Molecular structure of the isotropic quartet identified in the complex EPR signal of D-mannose crystallite is proposed.
This paper presents an analysis of the Benchmark for Evaluation And Validation of Reactor Simulations (BEAVRS) performed using SCALE 6.1.2 and PARCS 3.2 computer codes. The benchmark specification contains a detailed design, operational data and measurements for a real 4-loop Westinghouse pressurized water reactor (PWR). The lattice physics simulations were prepared using TRITON depletion sequence and NEWT neutron transport solver (SCALE package). The 238-neutron group library based on evaluated nuclear data file – ENDF/B-VII nuclear data libraries was applied. A set of branch and burnup calculations was prepared, and group constants in the form of PMAXS files were generated with GenPMAXS. The full-core models were prepared using the PARCS nodal-diffusion core simulator. The PMAXS libraries were used with PARCS to investigate the core operation. The hot zero power measurement data, including control rod worths and critical boron concentrations, were compared using simulations, and satisfactory results were achieved. The first fuel cycle was simulated, and acceptable agreement with boron letdown curve and measurements were obtained. Finally, conclusions and recommendations for future research were presented.
Błażej Baic, Beata Kozłowska, Robert Kwiatkowski and Marcin Dybek
Photon beams with wide energy ranges from 4 MV to 25 MV are commonly used in radiotherapy nowadays. In recent years, there has been a strong interest in a certain modification of a radiotherapeutic apparatus by the application of the so-called flattening filter-free (FFF) beam. Several advantages of FFF beams over standard flattening filter (FF) beams are noticed, and this technical solution has aroused great interest among radiotherapeutic facilities. The goal of the present study is to investigate the differences between the conventional FF and unflattened FFF 6-MV and 10-MV photon beams in some basic dosimetric parameters and their influence on the whole radiotherapeutic treatment. The data provided here include the detailed characteristics as follows: percent depth dose (PDD), beam profile, edge of a half-profile, total scatter correction factor (TSCF) and head scatter correction factor (HSCF) for FF and FFF 6-MV and 10-MV photon beams from the Elekta Versa HD accelerator in the Katowice Oncology Center in Poland.
In this study, the heavy metal and radioactive properties of Iznik Lake were investigated. Concentration values of the first (Ag, Bi, Mo, Sn, Se, Zn, As, B, Cd, Co, Cr, Cu, Ni, Pb, Pt and Sb) and second (Na, Mg, K, Ca, P, S, Fe, Al and Mn) group of elements in borehole 1 (BH-1) drilling did not show much variation from the top to the bottom of the drilling. Concentration values of the first group of elements in borehole 2 (BH-2) drill samples decreased at higher levels of drilling. In addition, natural and anthropogenic radionuclides were measured by gamma spectrometry, and the results of environmental natural radioactivity of Iznik Lake and its surroundings were determined. In the measurement results, Ra-226 was found to be below the world average value at all locations. It is assumed that the determination of K-40 values above the average values was due to agricultural activities carried out intensively in the study area. Th-232 values were found to be below the world average value in drilling samples; Cs-137 values were below the background level in all samples. According to these results, the study area does not contain any unnatural radioactivity.
Depending on the neutron energy used, neutron radiography can be generally categorized as fast and thermal neutron radiography. Fast neutron radiography (FNR) with neutron energy more than 1 MeV opens up a new range of possibilities for a non-destructive examination when the inspected object is thick or dense. Other traditional techniques, such as X-ray, gamma ray and thermal neutron radiography, do not meet penetration capabilities of FNR in this area. Because of these distinctive features, this technique is used in different industrial applications such as security (cargo investigation for contraband such as narcotics, explosives and illicit drugs), gas/liquid flow and mixing and radiography and tomography of encapsulated heavy shielded low Z compound materials. The FNR images are produced directly during exposure as neutrons create recoil protons, which activate a scintillator screen, allowing images to be collected with a computer-controlled charge-coupled device camera. Finally, the picture can be saved on a computer for image processing. The aim of this research was to set up a portable FN R system and to test it for use in non-destructive testing of different composite materials. Experiments were carried out by using a fast portative neutron generator Thermo Scientific MP 320.
As radiation science and technology advances, nuclear medicine applications are increasing worldwide which necessitate the understanding of biological implications of such practices. Ionizing radiation has been shown to cause degraded matrix and reduced proteoglycan synthesis in cartilage, and the late consequences of which may include degenerative arthritis or arthropathy. Although degenerative effects of the ionizing radiation on cartilage tissue have been demonstrated, the effects on the mechanical properties of articular cartilage are largely unknown. The radiopharmaceuticals, technetium-99m and technetium-99m sestamibi, were utilized on bovine articular cartilage to investigate these effects. We used two different mechanical tests to determine the mechanical properties of articular cartilage. Dynamic and static mechanical tests were applied to calculate compressive modulus for articular cartilage. We observed clearly higher control modulus values than that of experimental groups which account for lesser stiffness in the exposed cartilage. In conclusion, compressive moduli of bovine articular cartilage were found to decrease after radiopharmaceutical exposure, after both instantaneous and equilibrium mechanical experiments.