Chen Wang, Faizul Azli Mohd Rahim, Nurul Safwah Mohd Yusoff, Hamzah Abdul Rahman and Vili How
Daylighting is often integrated into a building as an architectural statement and for energy savings. However, the benefits from daylighting extend beyond architecture and energy savings. Solar bottle bulb is an invention that is highly effective and cost effective enough to be used in huge numbers for those without sources of interior lighting. This invention is very easy and excessively cheap, requires only a bottle, some roofing materials, water and minimal amount of regularly found chemical and no electricity is needed. This paper reviews the critical retrospect of daylighting through the solar bottle bulb perspective. It highlights the need for solar bottle bulbs use within the underprivileged areas of the world and the importance of this invention as a pathway towards sustainability. This paper presents a review on the designs, principles and applications of the invention that have startled the poor people into a new way of life. The review consists of the assessment of journals, books, newspapers, reports and online sources in the field of daylighting and solar bottle bulb.
Hadad S. Hadad, Ibrahim M. Metwally and Sameh El-Betar
RC shear walls have been widely used as the main lateral-load resisting system in medium and high-rise buildings because of their inherent large lateral stiffness and load resistance. But, in general, the energy dissipating capacity of RC shear walls is not very good and it has been found that using the bracing system gives good results. The main purpose of this paper is to study the effect of different types of bracing on the lateral load capacity of the frame. Also, the research contains a comparison between the braced and infilled frames to decide on the best system. The research scheme consists of four frames; the bare frame, two frames the first of which was braced with concrete, the second was braced with steel bracing and the fourth frame was infilled with solid cement bricks. All the specimens were tested under cyclic loading. The results gave some important conclusions; braced and infilled bare frames increased the lateral strength of the bare frame depending on the type of bracing and infill. Also, the different types of bracing and the infill increased the initial stiffness of the bare frame by a reasonable value. The energy dissipation for the braced and infilled frames is always higher than that for the bare frame up to failure. Also, numerical modeling was carried out with the nonlinear software platform (IDARC). The numerical results obtained with the calibrated nonlinear model are presented and compared with the experimental results. Good agreement was achieved between the numerical simulation and the test results.
Vladimír Živica, Martin T. Palou and Martin Križma
Concrete is the world's most versatile, durable and reliable construction material. Next to water, concrete is the second most used substance on earth and it requires large quantities of Portland cement. The industrial sector is the third largest source of man-made carbon dioxide emissions after the transportation sector as the major generator of carbon dioxide, which pollutes the atmosphere. Ordinary Portland cement (OPC) production produces the largest amount of carbon dioxide amongst all industrial processes. In addition to that a large amount of energy is also consumed for the cement production. The production of OPC not only consumes a huge amount of the natural resources i.e. limestone and fossil fuels but also produces almost 0.9 t of CO2 for 1t of cement clinker production. Thus, the world cement production generates 2.8 billion tons of manmade greenhouse gas annually. Hence, it is inevitable to find an alternative material to the existing most expensive, most resource and energy consuming Portland cement.
Geopolymer cements are innovative binders which can be produced by the chemical action of aluminosilicate materials plenty available worldwide. They are rich in silica and alumina reacting with alkaline solution and producing aluminosilicate gel that acts as the binding material for the concrete. Geopolymers are synthesized by polycondensation reaction of geopolymeric precursor and alkali polysilicates.
The paper presents data on the important engineering properties of geopolymer cements showing that these cements offer an alternative to, and potential replacement for, OPC. Geopolymer technology also has the potential to reduce global greenhouse emissions caused by OPC production. Due to the high level of mechanical properties of geopolymer cements and their environmentally beneficial technology they appear as a prospective construction material for the future.
This paper presents a general 2.5D meshless MLPG methodology for the computation of the elastic response of longitudinally invariant structure subjected to the incident wave field. A numerical frequency domain model is established using the Fourier transform in time and longitudinal coordinate domains. This allows for significant reduction of computational effort required. In the MLPG method the Moving-Least Squares (MLS) scheme is employed for the approximation of the spatial variation of displacement field. No finite elements are required for the approximation or integration of unknowns. A small circular subdomain is introduced around each nodal point in the analyzed domain. Local integral equations derived from the governing equations are specified on these subdomains. Continuously non-homogeneous material properties are varying in the cross-section of the analyzed structure. A simple patch test is introduced to assess the accuracy and the convergence of developed numerical model. At the end of the paper, numerical examples illustrate the applicability of the proposed numerical formulation.
This study investigates the effectiveness of different energy retrofitting techniques and examines the impact of employing those methods on energy consumption of existing residential buildings. Based on the research findings, the most effective and practical method of retrofitting has been proposed in order to improve energy efficiency of existing buildings. In order to achieve this goal, an existing residential building has been simulated in FirstRate 5 software so as to determine the existing thermal performance of the building. Afterwards, considering sustainable design principles, different insulation layers, glazing, and construction materials have been employed to conduct a comprehensive thermal performance study. Based on the research outcomes, the best technique for increasing energy efficiency of existing buildings and reducing their environmental impact and footprint has been identified and proposed for practical purposes.
A. Al-Swaidani, S. Aliyan, N. Adarnaly, B. Hanna and E. Dyab
In the study, three types of cement have been prepared; one CEM I type (the control sample) and two blended cements: CEM II/A-P and CEM II/B-P (EN 197-1), each of them with three replacement levels of volcanic scoria: (10 %, 15 %, 20 % wt.) and (25 %, 30 %, 35 % wt.), respectively. Strength development of mortars has been investigated at 2, 7, 28 and 90 days curing. Evaluation of chemical resistance of mortars containing scoria-based cements has been investigated through exposure to 5 % sulphate and 5 % sulphuric acid solutions in accordance with ASTM C1012 & ASTM 267, respectively. Drying shrinkage has been evaluated in accordance with ASTM C596. Test results showed that at early ages, the mortars containing CEM II/B-P binders had strengths much lower than that of the control mortar. However, at 90 days curing, the strengths were comparable to the control mortar. In addition, the increase of scoria significantly improved the sulphate resistance of mortars. Further, an increase in scoria addition improved the sulphuric acid resistance of mortar, especially at the early days of exposure. The results of drying shrinkage revealed that the CEM II/B-P mortar bars exhibited a greater contraction when compared to the control mortar, especially at early ages. However, drying shrinkage of mortars was not influenced much at longer times.
In this paper a computational homogenization technique is applied to thermal analyses in porous materials. A volume fraction of pores on the microstructural level is the key factor that changes the macroscopic thermal properties. Thus, the distribution of thermal fields at the macroscopic level is analysed through the incorporation of the microstructural response on the representative volume element (RVE) assuming a uniform distribution of pores. For the numerical analysis the scaled boundary finite element method (SBFEM) is introduced to compute the thermal response of RVE. The SBFEM combines the main advantages of the finite element method (FEM) and the boundary element method (BEM). In this method, only the boundary is discretized with elements leading to the reduction of spatial dimension by one, similarly as in the BEM. It reduces computational efforts in the mesh generation and CPU time. The proposed method is used to study square RVE with a circular and elliptic pore under the thermal load. Dimensions of the pore are varied to obtain different volume fractions of matrix material. Numerical results for effective thermal conductivities obtained via SBFEM modelling show an excellent agreement with the finite element analysis using commercial software COMSOL Multiphysics.
Recently illuminance levels under ISO/CIE homogeneous standard sky types were characterised in their relative terms after ISO/CIE (2004, 2003) standardised as normalised by the luminance in the zenith. Sky luminance and horizontal illuminance based on the gradation and scattering indicatrix functions, including the extreme overcast cases frequently encountered in nature, were recently determined in absolute physical units of luminance in kilocandles per meter square and of illuminance in kilolux. The historical search to find energy and visibility critical sky luminance distributions shows a progression of steps in studying the worst or critical overcast situations. That progression has enabled the determination and evaluation of interior illuminance for comparison of the merits of dual daylighting and artificial lighting under established criteria for comfortable visibility.
In the last years, a great number of experimental tests have been performed to determine the ultimate strength of reinforced concrete (RC) beams retrofitted in flexure by means of externally bonded carbon fiber-reinforced polymers (CFRP). Most of design proposals for flexural strengthening are based on a regression analysis from experimental data corresponding to specific configurations which makes it very difficult to capture the real interrelation among the involved parameters. To avoid this, an intelligent predicting system such as artificial neural network (ANN) has been developed to predict the flexural capacity of concrete beams reinforced with this method. An artificial neural network model was developed using past experimental data on flexural failure of RC beams strengthened by CFRP laminates. Fourteen input parameters cover the CFRP properties, beam geometrical properties and reinforcement properties; the corresponding output is the ultimate load capacity. The proposed ANN model considers the effect of these parameters which are not generally account together in the current existing design codes with the purpose of reaching more reliable designs. This paper presents a short review of the well-known American building code provisions (ACI 440.2R-08) for the flexural strengthening of RC beams using FRP laminates. The accuracy of the code in predicting the flexural capacity of strengthened beams was also examined with comparable way by using same test data. The study shows that the ANN model gives reasonable predictions of the ultimate flexural strength of the strengthened RC beams. Moreover, the study concludes that the ANN model predicts the flexural strength of FRPstrengthened beams better than the design formulas provided by ACI 440