Amir Khorasani, Seyed Mohammad Firoozabadi and Zeinab Shankayi
Irreversible electroporation (IRE) is a process in which the cell membrane is damaged and leads to cell death. IRE has been used as a minimally invasive ablation tool. This process is affected by some factors. The most important factor is the electric field distribution inside the tissue. The electric field distribution depends on the electric pulse parameters and tissue properties, such as the electrical conductivity of tissue. The present study focuses on evaluating the tissue conductivity change due to high-frequency and low-voltage (HFLV) as well as low-frequency and high-voltage (LFHV) pulses during irreversible electroporation. We were used finite element analysis software, COMSOL Multiphysics 5.0, to calculate the conductivity change of the liver tissue. The HFLV pulses in this study involved 4000 bipolar and monopolar pulses with a frequency of 5 kHz, pulse width of 100 µs, and electric field intensity from 100 to 300 V/cm. On the other hand, the LFHV pulses, which we were used, included 8 bipolar and monopolar pulses with a frequency of 1 Hz, the pulse width of 2 ms and electric field intensity of 2500 V/cm. The results demonstrate that the conductivity change for LFHV pulses due to the greater electric field intensity was higher than for HFLV pulses. The most significant conclusion is the HFLV pulses can change tissue conductivity only in the vicinity of the tip of electrodes. While LFHV pulses change the electrical conductivity significantly in the tissue of between electrodes.
Arif Fahmi, Choirul Anam, Suryono, Mohd Hanafi Ali and Arif Jauhari
An estimate of patient dose, patient size should be used to normalise the output dose of CT machine in the terms of volume CT dose index, CTDIvol. There are two metrics to characterise the patient size, i.e. the effective diameter (Deff) and the water-equivalent diameter (Dw). These two metrics could be estimated by patient age. However, to date, relationships between the age and head patient size (Deff and Dw) have not been established for the pediatric patients. The aim of this study was to establish the relationships between the age and head patient size (Deff and the Dw) as the basis for calculating the size-specific dose estimate (SSDE) for paediatric head CT examination. The data were retrospectively collected from serial images of the CT head in the DICOM file from one hundred and thirteen paediatric patients aged 0-17 years (63 male and 50 female patients) underwent head CT examinations. The patient’s sizes (Deff and Dw) were calculated from the patient’s images using the IndoseCT version 15a software. The Deff and Dw values were correlated with age of patients using regression analysis. It was found that patient size (Deff and Dw) correlated well with the age of the patient with R2 more than 0.8. The size of the Dw is bigger than the Deff. The Deff values for male patients are 12.38 to 16.21 cm, and Dw values are 11.96 to 18.16 cm, respectively. For female patients, the values of Deff are from 11.54 to 16.87 cm, and the values of Dw are from 11.60 to 17.86 cm, respectively.
Aleksandra Klimas, Aleksandra Grządziel, Dominika Plaza, Barbara Bekman, Bożena Woźniak, Łukasz Dolla, Wojciech Osewski, Paweł Paściak, Jacek Wendykier and Krzysztof Ślosarek
Biomedical accelerators used in radiotherapy are equipped with detector arrays which are commonly used to obtain the image of patient position during the treatment session. These devices use both kilovolt and megavolt x-ray beams. The advantage of EPID (Electronic Portal Imaging Device) megavolt panels is the correlation of the measured signal with the calibrated dose. The EPID gives a possibility to verify delivered dose. The aim of the study is to answer the question whether EPID can be useful as a tool for interfraction QC (quality control) of dose and geometry repeatability.
The EPID system has been calibrated according to the manufacturer’s recommendations to obtain a signal and dose values correlation. Initially, the uncertainty of the EPID matrix measurement was estimated. According to that, the detecting sensitivity of two parameters was checked: discrepancies between the planned and measured dose and field geometry variance. Moreover, the linearity of measured signal-dose function was evaluated.
In the second part of the work, an analysis of several dose distributions was performed. In this study, the analysis of clinical cases was limited to stereotactic dynamic radiotherapy. Fluence maps were obtained as a result of the dose distribution measurements with the EPID during treatment sessions. The compatibility of fluence maps was analyzed using the gamma index. The fluence map acquired during the first fraction was the reference one. The obtained results show that EPID system can be used for interfraction control of dose and geometry repeatability.
Asghar Mesbahi, Khatibeh Verdipoor, Farhad Zolfagharpour and Abdolali Alemi
The aim of the current research was to study the radiation shielding properties of polyurethane-based shielding materials filled with B4C, BeO, WO3, ZnO, and Gd2O3 particles against fast neutrons. The macroscopic cross sections of composites containing micro- and nanoparticles with a diameter of 10 µm and 50 nm were calculated using MCNPX (2.6.0) Monte Carlo code. The results showed that adding nano-scaled fillers to polyurethane matrix increases attenuation properties of neutron shields compared to micro-scaled fillers for intermediate and fast neutrons. Among the studied composites, WO3 and Gd2O3 nano-composites presented higher neutron cross section compared to others.
The main objective of our work is to measure 238U, 232Th, 222Rn and 220Rn in different table oil samples using a method based on the use of two types of solid nuclear track detectors: CR- 39 and LR-115 II in order to determine the doses of radiation received by the individuals following ingestion of the samples of table oil studied. Indeed, we have developed an original method based on the determination of the detection efficiencies of CR-39 and LR-115 II solid nuclear track detectors for alpha particles emitted from the uranium 238 and thorium 232 series to evaluate 238U, 232Th, 222Rn and 220Rn concentrations in different table oil samples. We were able to determine doses of radiation due to 238U, 232Th and 222Rn received by individuals of the Moroccan, French, Italy, Spain and Tunisia populations following the ingestion of table oil.
The effective doses committed due to 238U, 232Th, and 222Rn following the ingestion of the table oil by the consumers were determined. The maximum total committed effective dose was found equal to (10±0.7) µSv·y−1 of the Moroccan population, (11.6±0.7) µSv·y−1 of the French population, (10.3±0.7) µSv.y−1 of the Italian population, (10.4±0.5) µSv·y−1 of the Spanish population and (10.5±0.7) µSv·y−1 of the Tunisian population is much lower than the average dose given by the United Nations Scientific Committee on the Effects of Atomic Radiation  for ingestion (0.2 to 0.8 mSv·y−1). The results obtained using our method are in very good agreement with those obtained using the model of the International Commission on Radiological Protection
The nuclear reaction 19F(p, αγ)16O is presented as a valid method to measure the fluorine content in the first superficial layers of teeth. The analysis is performed in-vitro in extracted teeth, both healthy, fluorotic and decayed. It is performed irradiating the tooth with an energetic proton beam and analyzing the emitted high energy alpha particles. The quantitative analysis is performed comparing results with that of a standard sample at a known concentration. The depth profile of fluorine has a maximum content in the first superficial layers. The average concentrations in healthy enamel are of the order of 2 mg/g; it is of about 10 mg/g in fluorotic teeth, and below 0.1 mg/g in decayed teeth. The concentration in the dentine is about 50% lower than in the enamel and the concentrations decrease going from incisors to premolar and to molar teeth. Many results and a literature comparison are presented and discussed.
This study developed a simple wire phantom and an algorithm to automatically measure the modulation transfer function (MTF) in computed tomography (CT) and implemented it to evaluate the effect of focal spot size and reconstruction filter type. The phantom consisted of a resin cylinder filled with water, with a tin wire of diameter 0.1 mm positioned along the center of the cylinder. The automated MTF algorithm used an axial image of the phantom and comprised several steps. The center position of a region of interest (ROI) was automatically determined at the center of the wire image. The pixels were then summed along the y-direction to obtain the profile of the pixel values at a point along the x-direction. Following this, both edges of the profile were made equal to zero. The profile curve was then normalized so that the total of all the data was equal to unity. The normalized profile curve is the line spread function (LSF), and the MTF curve was obtained by taking its Fourier transform. Our system (phantom and algorithm) is able to differentiate the MTFs of CT images from different focal sizes and reconstruction filter types.
Today, to establish a diagnosis, the patient must undergo a biopsy followed by histopathological diagnosis, which causes unnecessary cost, patient trauma, and time delay to obtain a diagnosis. However, the metastases can be discovered by diffuse reflectance spectroscopy, which is a simple method that investigates the light distribution within tissue. The theme of this paper is the use of diffuse reflectance spectroscopy (DRS) to determine the optical spectrum of hamster specimen’s tissue and to differentiate biological changes due to laser irradiation (scattering, and cell changes) under the skin. DRS measurements were made on healthy and malignant tissue to diagnose the stages of cancer formation using a fiber-optic probe. The results show that malignant tissue is characterized by a significant decrease in diffuse reflectance spectrum compared to normal tissue.
Karthick Raj Mani, Muhtasim Aziz Muneem, Nazneen Sultana, Tanjina Hossain, Tabinda Basharat, Saumen Basu and Ramaa Lingaiah
Aim: To study the dosimetric advantages of the jaw tracking technique in intensity-modulated radiotherapy (IMRT) and volumetric modulated arc radiotherapy (VMAT) for carcinoma of cervix patients.
Materials and Methods: We retrospectively selected ten previously treated cervix patients in this study. All the ten patients underwent CT simulation along with immobilization and positional devices. Targets and organ at risks (OARs) were delineated slice by slice for all the patients. All the patients were planned for IMRT and VMAT with intend to deliver 50 Gy in 25 fractions. All the plans were planned with 6 MV photon beam using millennium-120 multi leaf collimator (MLC) using the TrueBeam linear accelerator. IMRT and VMAT plans were performed with jaw tracking (JT) and with static jaw (SJ) techniques by keeping the same constraints and priorities for the target volumes and critical structures for a particular patient. For standardization, all the plans were normalized to the target mean of the planning target volume. All the plans were accepted with the criteria of bladder mean dose < 40 Gy and rectum mean dose < 40 Gy without compromising the target volumes. Target conformity, dose to the critical structures and low dose volumes were recorded and analyzed for IMRT and VMAT plans with and without jaw tracking for all the patients.
Results: The conformity index average of all patients followed by standard deviation (̄x± σ̄x) for JT-IMRT, SJ-IMRT, JT-VMAT and SJ-VMAT were 1.176 ± 0.139, 1.175 ± 0.139, 1.193 ± 0.220 and 1.228 ± 0.192 and homogeneity index were 0.089 ± 0.022, 0.085 ± 0.024, 0.102 ± 0.016 and 0.101 ± 0.016. In low dose volume J,T-IMRT shows a 5.4% (p-value < 0.001) overall reduction in volume receiving at least 5 Gy (V5) compared to SJ-IMRT, whereas 1.2% reduction was observed in V5 volume in JT-VMAT compared to SJ-VMAT. JT-IMRT showed mean reduction in rectum and bladder of 1.34% (p-value < 0.001) and 1.46% (p-value < 0.001) compared to SJ-IMRT, while only 0.30% and 0.03% reduction were observed between JT-VMAT and SJ-VMAT. JT-IMRT plans also showed considerable dose reduction to inthe testine, right femoral head, left femoral head and cauda compared to the SJ-IMRT plans.
Conclusion: Jaw tracking resulted in decreased dose to critical structures in IMRT and VMAT plans. But significant dose reductions were observed for critical structures in the JT-IMRT compared to SJ-IMRT technique. In JT-VMAT plans dose reduction to the critical structures were not significant compared to the JT-IMRT due to relatively lesser monitor units in the VMAT plans.
Monte Carlo and TL dosimetry applied to the characterization of 125I brachytherapy with a different design with other 125I seeds. In a water phantom, lattice configuration simulated with 125I seed in the center and 10 nm gold and gadolinium nan-particle filed voxels. This simulation conducted to the characterization of the nano-particles DEF in low energy and prostate tissue. To study of the prostate brachytherapy, a humanoid computational phantom developed by CT slices applied. KTMAN-2 computational phantom contains 29 organs and 19 skeletal regions and was produced from cross-sectional x-ray computed tomography (CT slices) images. The simulated seed was 125I seed having an average energy of 28.4 keV for photons, a half-life of 59.4 days. DEF factor in the seed radiation energy (28.4 keV) DEF factor was found to be two times higher for the gold nano-particles. It was revealed than gold-nano-particles posing Z about 1.24 times higher than gadolinium led to around 200% DEF increasing in the same conditions and the nano-particles size. It was concluded that in low energy sources brachytherapy, photoelectric is dominant in the presence of relative high element nanoparticles. This leads to a high dose increasing in some micro-meters and causes a dramatic dose gradient in the vicinity of a nano-particle. This dose gradient effectively kills the tumor cells in continuous low energy irradiation in the presence of a high Z material nano-scaled particle. Application of gold nano-particles in low energy brachytherapy is recommended.