Silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) are nanomaterials obtained by nanotechnology and due to their antimicrobial properties have a major importance in the control of various species of bacteria, fungi and viruses, with applications in medicine, cosmetics or food industry. The goal of the paper was to present the results of the research carried out on rapid extracellular biosynthesis of silver nanoparticles mediated by culture filtrate of lactic acid bacteria Lactobacillus sp. strain LCM5 and to assess the antimicrobial activity. Analysis of transmission electron microscopy (TEM) micrographs evidenced that the size of AgNPs synthesized using culture filtrates of lactic acid bacteria strain LCM5 ranged between 3 and 35 nm diameter, with an average particle size of 13.84±4.56 nm. AgNPs presented a good dispersion, approximately spherical shape, with parallel stripes certifying crystal structure. Frequency distribution revealed that preponderant dimensions of biosynthesized AgNPs were below 20 nm (94%). Antimicrobial activity of AgNPs was variable depending on both species and group of test microorganisms (bacteria or fungi) involved. Diameter of growth inhibition zone of Aspergillus flavus and Aspergillus ochraceus caused by silver nanoparticles synthesized by lactic acid bacteria strain LCM5 were similar (12.39 ± 0.61mm and 12.86 ± 0.78 mm) but significant stronger inhibition was registered against Penicillium expansum (15.87 ± 1.01mm). The effectiveness of biosynthesized silver nanoparticles was more pronounced against Gram-negative bacteria Chromobacterium violaceum with larger zone of inhibition (18 ± 0.69 mm diameter) when compared to those from fungi. Results recommend the silver nanoparticles biosynthesized using culture filtrate of the lactic acid bacteria Lactobacillus sp. strain LCM5 for biotechnological purposes, as promising antimicrobial agents.
Hyperparathyroidism-Jaw Tumor (HPT-JT) is an autosomal dominant disorder with variable expression, with an estimated prevalence of 6.7 per 1,000 population. Genetic testing for predisposing CDC73 (HRPT2) mutations has been an important clinical advance, aimed at early detection and/or treatment to prevent advanced disease. The aim of this study is to assess the most deleterious SNPs mutations on CDC73 gene and to predict their influence on the functional and structural levels using different bioinformatics tools. Method: Computational analysis using twelve different in-silico tools including SIFT, PROVEAN, PolyPhen-2, SNAP2, PhD-SNP, SNPs&GO, P-Mut, I-Mutant ,Project Hope, Chimera, COSMIC and dbSNP Short Genetic Variations were used to identify the impact of mutations in CDC73 gene that might be causing jaw tumor. Results: From (733) SNPs identified in the CDC73 gene we found that only Eleven SNPs (G49C, L63P, L64P, D90H, R222G, W231R, P360S, R441C, R441H, R504S and R504H) has deleterious effect on the function and structure of protein and expected to cause the syndrome. Conclusion: Eleven substantial genetic/molecular aberrations in CDC73 gene identified that could serve as diagnostic markers for hyperparathyroidism-jaw tumor (HPT-JT).
A new and simple micelles-rich restricted access supramolecular solvent-based liquid phase microextraction method (RASUPRASs-LPME) based on the ion-pair complex formation of phosphate (PO43-) ions with ammonium heptamolybdate and malachite green in acidic medium was developed. The phosphate ion concentration after microextraction of the ion-pair complex to the hexagonal aggregates of decanoic acid (DA) was measured with micro-volume UV-Vis spectrophotometer at 625 nm. All analytical parameters which are effective on the method such as acid type and concentration, supramolecular solvent volume, amount of the components forming the complex, sample volume, were optimized. The preconcentration factor (PF), limit of detection (LOD) and limit of quantification (LOQ) for the developed method was found to be 15, 9.6 and 32.1, respectively. The RA-SUPRAs-LPME method was finally applied for the analysis of the phosphate content of different types of water samples.
The objective of this work is numerical simulation of the membrane by direct analysis at micro, meso and macro level. This approach includes first a defining and modeling of a basic structural unit, after that simulation of a fragment as a representative element of the membrane structure. Then the results obtained to transfer for the entire membrane module and finally modeling of the membrane as porous media with calculated permeability. The numerical simulation was done with Ansys CFX, using the Darcy’s equation for flow through porous media with configuration of the membrane and second order backward Euler transient scheme for solving the Navier-Stokes equations.
The permeability of the membrane is determined at a micro and macro level by computer simulation for different fluids, which allows to evaluating the influence of the viscosity on the flow passing through the membrane. This micro-macro approach is quite efficient and cost-effective because it saves time and requires less computer capacity and allows direct analysis of the complex structure of the membrane modules.
Around 70 infectious agents are possible threats for blood safety.
The risk for blood recipients is increasing because of new emergent agents like West Nile, Zika and Chikungunya viruses, or parasites such as Plasmodium and Trypanosoma cruzi in non-endemic regions, for instance.
Screening programmes of the donors are more and more implemented in several Countries, but these cannot prevent completely infections, especially when they are caused by new agents.
Pathogen inactivation (PI) methods might overcome the limits of the screening and different technologies have been set up in the last years.
This review aims to describe the most widely used methods focusing on their efficacy as well as on the preservation integrity of blood components.
Plants have been seen to possess the potential to be excellent biological matrices to serve as a basis for investigating the presence of promising therapeutic agents for cancer treatment. Several successful anti-cancer medicines - or their analogues - nowadays in use are plant derived and many more are under clinical trials. Under current circumstances, the purpose of this work was to test aqueous and ethanolic extracts of five aromatic and medicinal plants from arid zones on some tumor cell lines. These plants, Cymbopogon schoenanthus (L.) Spreng, Crithmum maritimum (L.) Spreng, Hammada scoparia (Pomel) Iljin, Retama raetam (Forssk.) and Zizyphus lotus (L.) Desf., widely used in Tunisian ethnomedicine, were assessed for their phenolic compounds, antioxidants and anticancer activities in aqueous and ethanol extracts. Total polyphenols, flavonoid and tannin contents were determined colorimetrically and some of these molecules were identified using RP-HPLC. A significant difference on phenolic contents and composition were found among the investigated plants. Cymbopogon schoenanthus was the richest in phenolic compounds (approx. 72%) with quercetine-3-o-rhamnoside (approx. 33%) as main contributor. For all the tested plants, the highest antioxidant capacity was detected in the ethanolic extracts rather than in the aqueous ones. The highest antiproliferative potential was observed for the ethanolic extracts. Hammada scoparia, Retama raetam and Zizyphus lotus exhibited important antiproliferative effect that reached 67% at a 1% extract concentration. Taken together, the present study supports the potential development of chemotherapeutic agents from, at least, four of the five studied Tunisian ethnomedicinal plants.
In forests, edaphic microbial communities are involved in litter decomposition and soil forming processes, with major contribution to humification, especially bacteria and fungi being responsible for the main ecosystem services fulfilled by the soil. Research has been carried out aiming to characterize the structure and diversity of microbial communities in the Rendzic Leptosols (WRB) under natural deciduous forest from Visterna, Babadag Plateau and to assess their contribution to ecosystem services provided by soil. The paper presents the results of quantitative estimations and taxonomic composition of soil and litter communities of heterotrophic bacteria and fungi, identification of cellulolytic species, as well as the microbial biomass and global physiological activities expressed as soil respiration potential. More than a half of bacterial species were common in litter and soil (SI=57.14%) and were represented by dominant species of fluorescent or non-fluorescent pseudomonads and Bacillus subtilis but no similarity was found between the two fungal communities. Fungal populations included cosmopolitan species, such as antagonists and strong cellulolytic representatives of genera Penicillium, Trichoderma, Mortierella, Chaetomium, Epicoccum, Aspergillus. Microbial density and microbial biomass presented the highest values in the litter (684 mg C x kg-1 d.s.) and in surface horizon Am1 of soil profile than in the bottom layers. The highest diversity was found in Am1 horizon (0-5 cm) H’=1.983 bits and ε=0.869 for cellulolytic community. Soil respiration reflected the intense physiological activity of microbiome, with high values associated to numerous effectives of bacteria and fungi especially in surface horizon. Microorganisms identified contribute to formation of soil by recycling of nutrients, cellulose decomposition, the synthesis of stable organic matter (humic acids), aggregation of soil particles, biological control of pathogens by antagonistic activity. They improve plant uptake of water and nutrients by forming symbioses (ectomycorrhizae), thus modelling the structure of vegetation.
Stressful saline concentrations in soils affect photosynthesis by damaging pigments, photosystems, components of electron transport system, and enzymes involved in the process. Plants respond through very complex stress adaptation mechanisms including proteome modulation, alterations in pigment content, cell osmotic adjustment and control of ion and water homeostasis mechanisms, which stabilize cytosolic glutathione redox potential, etc. The level of plant sensitivity depends on salt toxicity levels, growth stage, physiological and genetic factors. With aim the investigation of the salinity tolerant cultivars, and for the elucidation of mechanisms underlying this complex biological process, here we analyze the impact of four NaCl concentrations (0-50-100-200mM) in growth parameters (root, shoot and leaves length), pigment content (chla, chlb, carotenoids), and GSH content, during seedling of five bread wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) cultivars in modified Hoagland solutions. Based on biometric parameters, pigment synthesis and GSH content cultivar Nogal is salt-sensitive (growth and pigments reduced); cultivar Viktoria is medium-tolerant (growth partially impaired, pigments constant), cultivar Toborzo and cultivar Suba are medium-tolerant (growth partially impaired, pigments increased), cultivar Dajti salt-tolerant (growth partially impaired/ leaves developed, pigments increased). Quantity of GSH in response to different levels of salinity is cultivar specific, and time of exposure to salinity is in negative correlation to GSH content for all investigated cultivars.
This study aimed to investigate the effects of possible zinc (Zn) and molybdenum (Mo) contaminations on the critically endangered European Bluestar (Amsonia orientalis). The effects of Zn and Mo were tested in a dose-dependent manner on in vitro cultures. Zn at 0.1 mM in the medium inhibited root development whereas Mo showed the same effect only at ≥2.5 mM concentration. Gradual inhibition of shoot development was observed after treatment with both metals. Protein contents were also negatively affected by increasing metal concentrations, while proline levels increased gradually. Successive increases in metal concentrations resulted in higher hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) and malondialdehyde (MDA) concentrations. The activity of the antioxidant enzymes, peroxidase (POD) and catalase (CAT), were found to be enhanced in response to increasing metal concentrations. Superoxide dismutase (SOD) activity decreased after Zn treatment but increased after Mo treatment. A marked increase in POD and CAT in response to metal stress suggests that these enzymes might have a significant cooperative role in regulating H2O2 production, although CAT, in response to drought and salt stress, has been reported to only play a supplementary role in A. orientalis. These results indicated that A. orientalis is susceptible to long-term Zn stress but can tolerate up to 2.5 mM Mo in the long-term. Deficiency of Mo is more common than high toxic concentrations in the environment. Therefore Zn contamination should be considered as one of the major threats for A. orientalis in its native habitat.
Yarrow essential oil is used in complementary and alternative therapy for several diseases. Biological effects of essential oils span various cells and microorganisms. The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of different concentrations of the essential oil obtained from the yarrow plant (Achillea millefolium) on HeLa (CCL-2) cells. The components of the essential oil were studied by means of GC-MS analysis. Out of 10 determined compounds in the essential oil; 1,8-Cineole, Camphor, Beta-eudesmol and Camphene were found to be higher than others; and their biological effects were depicted with Ingeniuty Pathway Analysis (IPA) analysis. Moreover, cell cycle and proliferation tests were conducted on HeLa cells where yarrow plant’s essential oil was used. When extracted yarrow oil applied on HeLA Cells, apoptotic effects had been determined, furthermore proliferation of these cells decreased. In addition, activation of cell cycle control points was observed . Essential oil components could arrest the development of HeLa cells due to induction of cellular damage control mechanisms. In conclusion, we propose that the essential oil had a more repressive effect on HeLa cells, decreases their proliferation and prevented the increase in the number of cells.