Dénes Szabó (1856–1918) was the second professor of obstetrics and gynecology of the Franz Joseph University from Kolozsvár (Cluj). This is a centennial commemoration. Szabó was born in the family of a great geologist professor at Pest. He studied at the University from Budapest and Strasbourg. He took his doctor’s degree is 1879. He spent a year with medical studies in foreign countries. In 1881 he became assistant to Professor Tivadar Kézmárszky, head of the Gynecological Clinic No. I. from Budapest. He was qualified as private lecturer in gynecology in 1888. In this period he published a lot of studies and review articles in the weekly medical papers Orvosi Hetilap and Gyógyászat. The Kolozsvár professor of obstetrics János Maizner in 1892 got retired. As a result of a competition Szabó was appointed professor of both obstetrics and gynecology. Until 1899 he worked in very poor conditions in a suburb building. Then the new 2 floor hospital from Mikó Street was built, where there were separate sections for obstetrics and gynecology. There he could also train midwives during 5 month courses. He became member of the Medical section of Transylvanian Museum Society, from 1894 up to 1912 he was the editor of its review journal (Értesítő...). Most of his studies were published there. The Medical Faculty elected him three times dean, in 1905/6 he was the rector of the university. He published around 65 studies. Some of them discuss deontological problems or deal with medical history. He was one of the editors of two memorial volumes, one dedicated to Professor Purjesz (1906), the other to Professor Lechner (1915). He compiled the first history of the Medical Faculty in 1896. He was also one of the editors of the monographic album of the Kolozsvár University from 1903. Five of its chapters were written by him. He was awarded with the title of Court Counselor. During WWI he did much for the medical care of wounded soldiers, so he got military awards, too. A number of medical and civil associations elected him president. He died because of gastric cancer at a Budapest hospital. According to his final wish he was buried in the Házsongárd Cemetery
Introduction: Camellia sinensis, a widely used plant, optimally grows in a low pH soil that in most cases contains high amounts of aluminum. Objectives: The aluminum content of the tea obtained from Camellia sinensis and other plants was compared. The influence of pH on the aluminum content of the tea was also measured. Materials and methods: The aluminum content of 48 samples was measured using a colorimetric method. The method is based on the ability of aluminum to form a stable complex with xylenol orange at low pH; this complex has an absorption maximum of 555 nm. Results: The method was validated for tea obtained with water and for tea obtained with water containing citric acid. The method proved linear over the rage of 0.7 – 7 ug/ml, coefficient of variation ranged between 2.6 – 7.68% (was dependent on the pH of the solution used to obtain the tea), accuracy was suitable for quantitative measurement (92.39-102.92%) and the complex proved to be stable for at least 1 hour. The following concentrations were measured: green tea (1.59 - 7.70 µg/ml), black tea (1.39 - 5.60 µg/ml), fruit tea (1.01 - 5.63 µg/ml) and herbal tea (1.03 - 5.24 µg/ml). Conclusion: The method proved useful and easily applicable for screening aluminum content of plants used for tea brewing. Camellia sinensis both green and black types had significantly higher aluminum contents than other type of teas. Adding citric acid, as would result from use of lemon juice, significantly increased the aluminum extraction from the plants used for tea brewing.
Triptans are specific drugs for migraine attack, their use leads to selective vasoconstriction, while the inflammatory condition that usually occurs during migraine is reduced. The structurally indolamine derivatives are selective agonists of the serotonin 1B/1D receptor. This review presents the history, representatives, production, and physico-chemical properties of triptans, but also discusses their pharmacological properties and mechanism of action.
Corticosterone is an adrenocortical steroid hormone with glucocorticoid and mineralocorticoid effects. Based on previous studies, the plasma level of corticosterone correlates with the stress exposure of rodents. Because the half-life of corticosterone in blood is short, its plasma concentration can be used as an acute stress marker. But hair is accumulating the systemic and locally produced corticosterone, therefore it can be used to study chronic stress. However, the accurate quantification of corticosterone is an analytical challenge owing to the very low amount of hormone found in a complicated biological matrix. The high performance liquid chromatography coupled with mass spectrometry (HPLC-MS) can provide the required selectivity and sensitivity for this purpose. Currently published methods for corticosterone quantification involve complicated sample preparation and long run time. Accordingly, the aims of the study were to simplify the extraction method of the corticosterone from rat hair samples and to develop an optimized HPLC-MS method for the accurate quantification. The rat hair samples were washed with methanol, dried and cut, then extracted with methanol at room temperature for 24 hours. The lipids were precipitated with formic acid aqueous solution and eliminated by centrifugation. The corticosterone was separated from other compounds with reverse phase chromatography using acetonitrile and 0,1% aqueous solution of formic acid as mobile phase. The detection was performed in positive SIM mode measuring the 347 m/z molecular ion. A six point calibration was performed in the range of 0,5-20 ng/ml, the accuracy was tested with quality control samples at two different concentration level. The total run time is only 4,2 minutes and the lower limit of quantification (LLOQ) is 0,5 ng/ml, with 10 pg absolute sensitivity. By determining the quantity of the hormone for a well-defined hair region, based on the speed of hair growth, we can characterize the retrospective stress exposure of the animals in different conditions.
The endocannabinoid system (ECS) received a lot of attention ever since its discovery. Advancements of the last three decades have shown that there are numerous mechanisms by which the ECS regulates the energy metabolism. These can either be central (regulating appetite and calorie expenditure) or peripheral (adipocyte-specific and other) mechanisms. The current review highlights some of the most important observations leading to the discovery of the ECS first, followed by a part detailing the synthesis and transport of these mediators, the receptor types and second messenger systems involved. The next part is dedicated to the mechanisms by which this system regulates the energy metabolism. Lastly, the drugs that reached the clinical phase and the main targets and strategies for future drug development will be reviewed.
In Kolozsvár, on 17th of September 1872, a Hungarian royal university was founded with 4 faculties 1- Law and Political Sciences, 2. Medical, 3. Arts (liberal), Language and History of Science, 4. Mathemathics and Natural History faculties. In 1881 the University picked up the Ferencz József University of Science name. There was no independent Medicine trainingfacultyt at this time yet. Pharmacists were taught in the Medical and Natural History faculties. In December 1918, during the first world war, Kolozsvár was moved under Romanian rule. On the 9th of May in 1919 the Romanian authorities called the acadamic senate (school staff) to do loyalty oath for the Romanian king.This was refused by the university teachers. After this event, teachers were moved out from this building along with the entire equipement of the University, and the place was occupied by the Romanian university. As, by this, theHungarian language acadamic education became impossible the first stage of the life of(Hungarian King) Ferencz József University of Sciense ended. First, the major part of theprofessors and students emigrated to Budapest while later on in 1921 the University wastemporarily established in Szeged. The University in Szeged took not onlythe legal continuity of the institute through its name but its professors also maintained and cherished all the traditions of the institute through many long coming years. Starting from 1921/1922 many student with transilvanian origin obtained pharmacist’s degree here many of whom later returned and worked in their native country.
Tibor Széki pharmacist, professor of pharmacy, member of the Hungarian Academy of Science, co-worker at Kolozsvár University, rector at Szeged University, professor of Budapest. He was a talented teacher, intuitive researcher, well organizing (founder of several institutes of chemistry) and public personality. His importance is beyond dispute in development of Hungarian chemical education.
The premotor phase of Parkinson’s disease (PD) precedes the appearance of motor symptoms by years. Many non-motor diseases have been associated with an increased risk of developing PD, but results of these studies are conflicting. The aim of this study was to investigate the occurrence of certain internal diseases (metabolic, circulatory, gastrointestinal) based on diagnosis codes, before the diagnosis of PD. There were 5209 patients included in the study who received diagnosis of PD at least in 2 years and we analyzed data retrospectively between 2004 and 2016. Out of metabolic diseases dyslipidemia (41%) and diabetes mellitus (32%), out of circulatory diseases hypertension (89%) and ischemic heart disease (51%) and out of gastrointestinal diseases gastroesophageal reflux disease (51%) and gallstones (25%) were the first two most common disorders in the examined PD patients. This is the first study in Hungary which analyzed PD in a large database in the context of internal diseases, and raised the possibility of a link between dyslipidemias, diabetes mellitus, hypertension, ischemic heart disease, gastooesophagial reflux, gallstones and PD.
The Transient Receptor Potential Vanilloid 1 (TRPV1) and Ankyrin 1 (TRPA1) are non-selective cation channels predominantly localized on capsaicin-sensitive sensory neurons; however both receptors have been described in non-neuronal tissues. It has been published that both receptors upregulated in peritoneal endometriosis in humans. Our research group demonstrated that TRPA1 and TRPV1 expression is elevated in human deep infiltrating endometriosis (DIE) lesions and the receptors have an estrogen-dependent expression pattern in rat endometrium. Here, we investigated the expression changes of TRPA1/V1 and the role of the capsaicin-sensitive sensory-nerve endings in a rat model of peritoneal endometriosis. Peritoneal endometriosis was surgically induced in 8-week-old female rats (n=7-7) for 2-weeks (acute condition) and 8-weeks (chronic condition). TRPA1/V1 mRNAs were quantified with quantitative polymerase chain reaction (qPCR). The expression levels were compared with the results obtained earlier from human DIE samples. The blockade of the TRPA1/V1 expressing capsaicin-sensitive nerve endings was induced with resiniferatoxin (RTX), followed by the measurement of the weight and size of the endometriosis lesions. We detected TRPV1 and TRPA1 mRNA in normal rat endometrium, their expression was not altered in sham-operated animals. In chronic, but not in acute endometriosis the expression was significantly elevated in the lesions, which results are consistent with our previous findings in human DIE. The elimination of capsaicin-sensitive nerve endings decreased the weight of the endometriosis lesions while the size of the ectopic tissue was not altered. Taken together, our results obtained from the rat endometriosis model are consistent with the previous human results, therefore this model is considered to have translational significance and it is suitable for functional analysis of the ion channels. The local, non-neuronal TRPA1 and TRPV1 might play a role in inflammation and sensory neuronal activation in endometriosis related pain, which is mediated by a broad range of pro-inflammatory molecules.
The aim of this experimental work was the enhancement of water solubility of the lipid lowering atorvastatin, by embedding it in polymer based micro sized fibers obtained by electrospinning. We prepared a polyvinylpyrrolidone (Kollidon 90F®) dispersion and added the active substance. By setting the experimental parameters we obtained four different microfibers containing atorvastatin, and one without the drug. The pH, viscosity and conductivity of the dispersions have been measured. The drug content and dissolution of atorvastatin had been studied by capillary electrophoresis. The size and thermal behavior of the fibers was determined. The parameters of the microfibers are influenced by the experimental parameters of electrospinning. The micro-method for dissolution showed a twofold solubility enhancement.