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Aluminium contamination of several types of tea

Abstract

Introduction: Camellia sinensis, a widely used plant, optimally grows in a low pH soil that in most cases contains high amounts of aluminum. Objectives: The aluminum content of the tea obtained from Camellia sinensis and other plants was compared. The influence of pH on the aluminum content of the tea was also measured. Materials and methods: The aluminum content of 48 samples was measured using a colorimetric method. The method is based on the ability of aluminum to form a stable complex with xylenol orange at low pH; this complex has an absorption maximum of 555 nm. Results: The method was validated for tea obtained with water and for tea obtained with water containing citric acid. The method proved linear over the rage of 0.7 – 7 ug/ml, coefficient of variation ranged between 2.6 – 7.68% (was dependent on the pH of the solution used to obtain the tea), accuracy was suitable for quantitative measurement (92.39-102.92%) and the complex proved to be stable for at least 1 hour. The following concentrations were measured: green tea (1.59 - 7.70 µg/ml), black tea (1.39 - 5.60 µg/ml), fruit tea (1.01 - 5.63 µg/ml) and herbal tea (1.03 - 5.24 µg/ml). Conclusion: The method proved useful and easily applicable for screening aluminum content of plants used for tea brewing. Camellia sinensis both green and black types had significantly higher aluminum contents than other type of teas. Adding citric acid, as would result from use of lemon juice, significantly increased the aluminum extraction from the plants used for tea brewing.

Open access
Chemical and pharmacological characterization of triptans

Abstract

Triptans are specific drugs for migraine attack, their use leads to selective vasoconstriction, while the inflammatory condition that usually occurs during migraine is reduced. The structurally indolamine derivatives are selective agonists of the serotonin 1B/1D receptor. This review presents the history, representatives, production, and physico-chemical properties of triptans, but also discusses their pharmacological properties and mechanism of action.

Open access
Dénes Szabó (1856-1918), the Clinic-founder Professor of Gynecology, A Centennial Commemoration

Abstract

Dénes Szabó (1856–1918) was the second professor of obstetrics and gynecology of the Franz Joseph University from Kolozsvár (Cluj). This is a centennial commemoration. Szabó was born in the family of a great geologist professor at Pest. He studied at the University from Budapest and Strasbourg. He took his doctor’s degree is 1879. He spent a year with medical studies in foreign countries. In 1881 he became assistant to Professor Tivadar Kézmárszky, head of the Gynecological Clinic No. I. from Budapest. He was qualified as private lecturer in gynecology in 1888. In this period he published a lot of studies and review articles in the weekly medical papers Orvosi Hetilap and Gyógyászat. The Kolozsvár professor of obstetrics János Maizner in 1892 got retired. As a result of a competition Szabó was appointed professor of both obstetrics and gynecology. Until 1899 he worked in very poor conditions in a suburb building. Then the new 2 floor hospital from Mikó Street was built, where there were separate sections for obstetrics and gynecology. There he could also train midwives during 5 month courses. He became member of the Medical section of Transylvanian Museum Society, from 1894 up to 1912 he was the editor of its review journal (Értesítő...). Most of his studies were published there. The Medical Faculty elected him three times dean, in 1905/6 he was the rector of the university. He published around 65 studies. Some of them discuss deontological problems or deal with medical history. He was one of the editors of two memorial volumes, one dedicated to Professor Purjesz (1906), the other to Professor Lechner (1915). He compiled the first history of the Medical Faculty in 1896. He was also one of the editors of the monographic album of the Kolozsvár University from 1903. Five of its chapters were written by him. He was awarded with the title of Court Counselor. During WWI he did much for the medical care of wounded soldiers, so he got military awards, too. A number of medical and civil associations elected him president. He died because of gastric cancer at a Budapest hospital. According to his final wish he was buried in the Házsongárd Cemetery

Open access
The endocannabinoid system: from the receptors to therapy

Abstract

The endocannabinoid system (ECS) received a lot of attention ever since its discovery. Advancements of the last three decades have shown that there are numerous mechanisms by which the ECS regulates the energy metabolism. These can either be central (regulating appetite and calorie expenditure) or peripheral (adipocyte-specific and other) mechanisms. The current review highlights some of the most important observations leading to the discovery of the ECS first, followed by a part detailing the synthesis and transport of these mediators, the receptor types and second messenger systems involved. The next part is dedicated to the mechanisms by which this system regulates the energy metabolism. Lastly, the drugs that reached the clinical phase and the main targets and strategies for future drug development will be reviewed.

Open access
An event that impacted the Transylvanian pharmacist education 100 years ago

Abstract

In Kolozsvár, on 17th of September 1872, a Hungarian royal university was founded with 4 faculties 1- Law and Political Sciences, 2. Medical, 3. Arts (liberal), Language and History of Science, 4. Mathemathics and Natural History faculties. In 1881 the University picked up the Ferencz József University of Science name. There was no independent Medicine trainingfacultyt at this time yet. Pharmacists were taught in the Medical and Natural History faculties. In December 1918, during the first world war, Kolozsvár was moved under Romanian rule. On the 9th of May in 1919 the Romanian authorities called the acadamic senate (school staff) to do loyalty oath for the Romanian king.This was refused by the university teachers. After this event, teachers were moved out from this building along with the entire equipement of the University, and the place was occupied by the Romanian university. As, by this, theHungarian language acadamic education became impossible the first stage of the life of(Hungarian King) Ferencz József University of Sciense ended. First, the major part of theprofessors and students emigrated to Budapest while later on in 1921 the University wastemporarily established in Szeged. The University in Szeged took not onlythe legal continuity of the institute through its name but its professors also maintained and cherished all the traditions of the institute through many long coming years. Starting from 1921/1922 many student with transilvanian origin obtained pharmacist’s degree here many of whom later returned and worked in their native country.

Open access
Famous Hungarian chemists and pharmacists: Tibor Széki

Abstract

Tibor Széki pharmacist, professor of pharmacy, member of the Hungarian Academy of Science, co-worker at Kolozsvár University, rector at Szeged University, professor of Budapest. He was a talented teacher, intuitive researcher, well organizing (founder of several institutes of chemistry) and public personality. His importance is beyond dispute in development of Hungarian chemical education.

Open access
Solubility enhancement of atorvastatin by embedding in micro sized carrier

Abstract

The aim of this experimental work was the enhancement of water solubility of the lipid lowering atorvastatin, by embedding it in polymer based micro sized fibers obtained by electrospinning. We prepared a polyvinylpyrrolidone (Kollidon 90F®) dispersion and added the active substance. By setting the experimental parameters we obtained four different microfibers containing atorvastatin, and one without the drug. The pH, viscosity and conductivity of the dispersions have been measured. The drug content and dissolution of atorvastatin had been studied by capillary electrophoresis. The size and thermal behavior of the fibers was determined. The parameters of the microfibers are influenced by the experimental parameters of electrospinning. The micro-method for dissolution showed a twofold solubility enhancement.

Open access
Challenges in technology of bilayer and multi-layer tablets: a mini-review

Abstract

Bilayer and multi-layer tablets are enjoying growing popularity among original drug and generic product manufacturers. Multi-layer tablets have many key benefits compared to classic immediate-release tablets. The use of such solid oral dosage forms simplifies dosing regimens in combination therapy, and thus improves patient compliance. However, the technology of multilayer tablets is demanding and requires precise choice of excipients and production parameters with regard to each technological step. The main benefits of multi-layer tablets, certain aspects of their production and the challenges encountered during the compression process are reviewed in this paper.

Open access
Comparative dissolution studies on granules with acetaminophen and caffeine using the basket and paddle methods with simultaneous spectrophotometric determination of active substances

Abstract

Acetaminophen and caffeine, popular therapeutic substances used to relieve pain or alleviate the symptoms of cold. The aims of the study were the comparison of granules, in terms of dissolution rate and moreover the development of spectrophotometric method to the simultaneous determination of both active pharmaceutical ingredients (APIs) in granules. The granules were tested by two pharmacopoeial methods of dissolution for solid dosage forms, and the dissolution profiles for each formulation were compared. A method of simultaneous determination of two medicinal substances by the double calibration method using derivative spectrophotometry was used. Considering the dissolution process carried out in the paddle apparatus, it was shown that more than 80% of acetaminophen and caffeine were released from each of the preparations in a clearly shorter time than 10 minutes. Carrying out the basket test, substances dissolved gradually, much slower than in the paddle method. The time required to release 80% of both active substances from majority of tested preparations was from 30 to 45 minutes. Application of the first derivative spectrophotometric method allows simultaneous determination of acetaminophen and caffeine in the mixture, without the need to separate them first.

Open access
Comparison of TGF-β, IL-10 levels and LMP-1 in gastric and oropharyngeal carcinoma associated with EBV infection

Abstract

Increasing interest has been focused on the Epstein-Barr Virus (EBV)-associated cancers, including oropharyngeal cancer (OPC) and gastric cancer (GC). Different cytokines, growth factors and proteins take part in oncogenesis. The aim of our study was to generate a comparison of interleukin 10 (IL-10) and transforming growth factor β (TGF-β) levels, as well as latent membrane protein (LMP-1), Epstein-Barr virus capsid antigen (EBVCA), Epstein-Barr virus nuclear antigen (EBNA) and early antigen (EA) frequency in the serum of patients with GC and OPC. The study involved 50 patients with diagnosed GC and 50 patients with OPC. All studied patients were EBV positive. Fresh-frozen tumor tissue fragments were tested using nested PCR assay for EBV DNA detection. Sera from all individuals were investigated using ELISA tests to detect the presence of EBVCA IgG, EBNA IgG, EA IgG, as well as to determine the levels of IL-10 and TGF-β. The obtained results were subjected to statistical analysis. In patients with GC, the levels of TGF-β and IL-10 were significantly higher than in OPC patients. However, the frequency and level of EBVCA, EBNA and EA in patients with OPC and GC were not significantly different. In contrast, TGF-β and IL-10 levels were significantly higher in EBVaGC, as compared to OPC, suggesting their role in gastric carcinogenesis. The differences in frequency of LMP-1 detection in patients with OPC and GC may suggest different mechanism of oncogenesis. Further studies are required to clarify the role of Epstein-Barr virus in cancer development.

Open access