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Cristina-Nicoleta Șoitu

Abstract

This study aims to analyze the variational principle, as it is applied in Dinu Lipatti’s Sonatina for Violin and Piano, from a theoretical-analytical perspective, but also from the standpoint of the interpretative implications. The variational processes, in close connection with the specificity of the neoclassical language of the work, determine an atypical classification of the form of variations in the gender structure, which implies a resizing of the interpretative means by which the musical dramaturgy of the piece can be achieved. The comparison with the classic model of variations as a component of the sonata genre dedicated to the violin-piano duo, as it appears in the works of composers such as Mozart or Beethoven, as a method of analytical research, highlights the language aspects that condition the performer’s vision in the case of Lipatti’s Sonatina, such as character, tempo, metrics, the type of writing, elements of virtuosity or timbre, whose valences are distinct from those determined by a music discourse from the classical era. Understanding the correlation between the succession of movements and the composition of the variational plan constitutes a priority in approaching this work and shaping the desired artistic message; this is why the study attempts to highlight the necessary connection between the structural elements of the composition and those implicitly generated by them, namely the technical and expressive elements required by the interpretative act.

Open access

Carmen Almăşanu

Abstract

Borne from the relevant and efficient expression in the context of contemporary culture, neo-protestant choral spirituality uses a diversified and meaningful language. From the very beginning of the existence of neo-protestant cults on the territory of our country, the establishment of a liturgical repertoire intended for common intonation or by various choral or vocal-instrumental bands has been one of the primordial preoccupations. Along with choral creations translated from the universal literature, there is a significant number of original works created by Romanian composers within the religious services. Due to extremely diverse themes and extrovert character, neo-protestant choral music includes different styles specific to the great tradition of classical, romantic or modern music as well as influences from the extra-European sphere. The text of these creations, which has biblical inspiration or created by the composer, is a means of great diversification in the reproduction of the sound material. Composers and arrangers with high quality music training and a profound understanding of biblical truths, through sound art wanted to contribute to the enrichment of contemporary neo-protestant choral music repertoire, leaving posterity a significant amount of valuable choral pages as inheritance.

Open access

Marina Morari

Abstract

The present article identifies the characteristics of a good textbook, it analyses and describes some of the concepts used in the structure of the Musical Education textbook for the second grade in the Republic of Moldova. Some units of the textbook are classified and characterised in relation to the requirements of modern education. Also, the article describes working techniques with some of the contents: theme title, the interface text, the informative text, pictographic images.

Open access

Iulian Horez

Abstract

Facial muscles have an overwhelming importance in obtaining a special sonority, a perfect instrumental technique. In fact, through their vibration all sonority is produced by these muscles, and the level of professionalism one can reach depends on their degree of efficient use. We shall next analyze the specific issues and modality of use. While playing a mouthpiece instrument, due to the way facial muscle s are used, the following issues arise: exaggerated facial muscles stretching, clamping, undue strain, vibration limitation (by over-pressing, outer reason).

Open access

Daniel Dragomirescu

Abstract

In the past, more precisely in the Fifteenth and Sixteenth centuries, both pieces for keyboard instruments (organ or clavecin) and those for the guitar’s ancestor, the lute, were preceded by an introduction bearing the title of prelude. In the seventeenth century, this prelude was used as an introduction to some religious works, being synonymous to the preamble, as both were meant to prepare the atmosphere and tone of a musical piece. Johann Sebastian Bach played a decisive role in the evolution of the prelude, using it as the first part of the preclassic instrumental suite, with the intention of setting the unique tone, the tone in which the whole work will be performed. Later, in the 19th and 20th centuries, taking over the tradition of J.S.Bach, the composers will write cycle pieces for various instruments, which, through their rich, melodic, harmonic, rhythmic variety of form and genre, will enjoy success in the concert halls. Examples include the cycles of preludes of Frederich Chopin, Claude Debussy, Alexandr Skriabin, Serghey Rachmaninov, Mihail Jora, and others. Villa-Lobos preludes touch the audience’s sensitivity more directly than studies. Their appearance is an essential contribution to the guitar repertoire of the 20th century. In the small form, the author proved a brilliant sense of balance, intense feelings, great conceptual originality, making the most of the technical and sound resources of the instrument. These short compositions, always present in the repertory of all great guitarists, require our attention and admiration. Written shortly before 1940, in the original manuscript these preludes were six. Unfortunately, one of them, “the best of all” as the composer said, was lost. As regards this statement, John Duarte, in his work, the Preludes of Villa-Lobos. Some notes” considers this would have an ironic character. “Just like the Three Musketeers who were actually four, so the 5 Preludes were originally six”.143

Open access

Cătălin Răsvan

Abstract

Sound banks are collections of sound samples from musical instruments of the symphonic orchestra, traditional instruments from various areas of the world and sounds of virtual devices, such as synthesizers, which are increasingly present in contemporary musical creations. Sound banks are loaded in a device called sampler, which can edit and play them. The article describes analog and especially virtual samplers, complex devices that can store or play sounds from specific libraries of sound banks. It also defines and catalogs the main types of digital virtual instruments (that include traditional symphonic orchestra instruments, ones with modern electronic instruments/percussion instruments, and ethnic collections for various geographic areas. Our research on digital applications used in music writing relies on 20 years of experience. Currently, applications are valuable tools for composers and musicians, and for everyone in the contemporary music industry. In 2006, I created the first collection of sound banks made in Romania “The Essence of Panflute”, library containing sound samples 583, grouped in 33 virtual instruments. This is the most complex virtual version of the Romanian pan flute, played by the renowned Cătălin Tîrcolea. The library is designed and edited by Cătălin Răsvan, for the company S.C. Canira Music Internațional. This collection of sound banks presents in minute detail the laborious process of recording and editing this virtual library. “The Essence of Panflute” has seen international acclaim, is distributed by the German company Best Service, one of the major companies in the world, was reviewed in the most prestigious magazine in this field, Sound on Sound, and has opened the door for current/future creators of music. We hope that it is only the beginning for our work in the research and development of digital virtual sound, which is a special category for the instruments in our country.

Open access

Karol Medňanský

Abstract

The five hundreth anniversary that we commemorated in 2017 is a good opportunity to remind the significance of vocal works by Martin Luther. Creative musical activity of Dr. Martin Luther is somehow in the shadow of his other historically significant activities. It is a well-known fact that he was an outstanding musician who could play lute and could sing. In his household, he constantly played music and sang, while he actively engaged his family in performing music. In performing the reformatory ideas, he was aware of the extremely important role of religious singing, which he started composing since 1523. He is the author of 38 songs – chorales, while at the same time, he is the author of 20 melodies. In most cases, he used the texts of the Psalms. From his chorals the best known is entitled Ein feste Burg is unser Gott – The Fortified Castle is the Lord our God, that became worldwide the anthem of the Protestants. Luther have become an important inspirational source for the next generation of composers, and they culminated in the work of Johann Sebastian Bach, including the works of contemporary Slovak composers – Roman Berger, Víťazoslav Kubička. The prevailing majority of Lutheran chorales is also the part of the Protestant Songbook in Slovakia.

Open access

Marta Burduloi

Abstract

The figure of the composer Sigismund Toduţă is among those creators whose style, although having a constant evolution towards complexity over several creative periods, remains essentially unitary from a stylistic point of view, rendering it recognizable by constant compositional masterpieces throughout his entire work.131 The existence of a significant number of studies, articles, analyses, integrated in various journalistic contexts (magazines, lexicons, doctoral theses), concerning various aspects of Toduţă creation, has made it possible to outline even from the beginning a general picture of the composer’s style, a valuable starting point for deepening the research in the spirit of the chosen theme.

Open access

Elena Chircev

Abstract

Written in the year of Romania’s centennial anniversary as a national state, this paper intends to offer a panorama of the monodic music of Byzantine tradition of the period, composed by the Romanian chanters. Although the entire twentieth century was characterized by the harmonization of the already established church chants, the musical works written in neumatic notation specific to the Orthodox Church continue to exist, albeit discontinuously. Based on the political changes that occurred in the Romanian society, three distinct periods of psaltic music creation can be distinguished: a. 1918-1947; b.1948-1989; c.1990-2018. The first period coincides with the last stage of the process of “Romanianization” of church chants. The second one corresponds to the communist period and is marked by the Communist Party’s decisions regarding the Church, namely the attempt to standardise the church chants. After 1990, psaltic music regains its position and the compositions of the last two decades enrich its repertoire with new collections of chants. Thus, we can see that in the course of a century marked by political turmoil and changes, psaltic composition went on a hiatus in the first decades of the totalitarian regime, to gradually resurge after 1980, enriched with numerous works bearing a distinct Romanian stamp.

Open access

Carmen Chelaru

Abstract

In 2018, Romanians celebrate the Centenary – a hundred years since Romania had the largest territory ever inhabited primarily by Romanians, at the same time, a century since Romania as a modern country was born. What do we know about our history in the last one hundred years? What and why do we celebrate? We know too little; many of the Romanians participating in the celebration do not know what it is for. The torrent of pathetic and solemn words about the past is useless. I followed two paths side by side, which happen to be in a natural connection, but sometimes they also go through distinct stages: on one hand, the course of the main historical events from the beginning of World War I until now, and on the other hand, Romanian musical life during the same period. I will cover five historical stages (World War I, Interwar Period and World War II, Soviet Occupation, Ceauşescuʼs era and Post-Communist Period) pursuing four main aims: a) an explicit historical image (as a musician I had a relatively narrow perspective on general historical facts); b) completing superficial knowledge received in school (before 1989) with information to justify certain events; c) the relationship between history–culture–music, in support of the idea that art does not exclude knowledge and civic involvement, on the contrary; d) the Past justifies the Present and together they work upon the Future. In the epilogue I will reveal an example that I consider illustrative for this fourth aim: the project Saving Enescu’s Cottage from Mihăileni. I have made this study mainly for my own benefit, in order to understand the historical facts, but especially to find an answer to the question: knowing history – what’s the use?