Cerium and tin co-doped cadmium zinc sulfide nanoparticles (CdZnS:Ce)Sn were synthesized by chemical bath deposition method with a fixed concentration of Ce (3.84 mol%) and three different concentrations of Sn (2 mol % and 4 mol% and 6 mol%). They showed broad photoluminescence spectra in the visible region under the ultraviolet excitation with a wavelength of 325 nm. The photoluminescence emission peaks were obtained at 540 nm, 560 nm and 570 nm for CdZnS, CdZnS:Ce and (CdZnS:Ce)Sn thin films, respectively having different concentrations of Sn. It has been observed that the photoluminescence emission peak shifted to higher wavelength region with an increase in intensity by Ce doping and Ce–Sn co-doping. Further enhancement in luminescence peak intensity has been observed by increasing concentration of Sn in (CdZnS:Ce)Sn films. Average crystallite size, measured from XRD data, was found to be increased with increasing concentration of Sn. An increase in the concentration of Sn shifted the UV-Vis absorption edge toward the higher wavelength side. Energy band gap for undoped CdZnS and Ce–Sn co-doped CdZnS varied from 2.608 eV to 2.405 eV. The SEM micrographs of CdZnS and (CdZnS:Ce)Sn films showed the leafy-like and ball-like structures. The presence of Sn and Ce was confirmed by EDAX analysis.
Pravin Kumar Singh, S.K. Tripathi and D.K. Dwivedi
Thin films of Ge10−xSe60Te30Inx (x = 0, 2, 4 and 6) were developed by thermal evaporation technique. The annealing effect on the structural properties of Ge10−xSe60Te30Inx (x = 0, 2, 4 and 6) films has been studied by X-ray diffraction (XRD). The XRD results indicate amorphous nature of the as-prepared films whereas crystalline phases in annealed films were identified. Structural parameters such as average crystallite size, strain, and dislocation were determined for different annealing temperatures. Effect of annealing on optical constants of prepared films has been explored using UV-Vis spectrophotometer in the wavelength range of 400 nm to 1000 nm. Various optical constants were determined depending on annealing temperature. It has been noticed that the film transparency and optical bandgap EG have been reduced whereas the absorption coefficient α and extinction coefficient k increased with increasing annealing temperature. It was found that the prepared samples obey the allowed direct transition. The reduction in optical bandgap with annealing temperature has been described by Mott and Davis model. Due to annealing dependence of the optical parameters, the investigated material could be utilized for phase change memory devices.
A. Mahudeswaran, A. Jeeva, J. Chandrasekaran and P.S. Vijayanand
In this article, we report the synthesis and characterization of silver dispersed poly(m-toluidine-co-2-bromoaniline) copolymer synthesized by chemical oxidative polymerization method. The synthesized copolymer composites were subjected to different analytical characterization methods, such as FT-IR, UV, XRD, SEM, photoluminescence and electrical conductivity studies. All the polymer samples are found to be soluble in common organic solvents. UV absorption spectra show a red shift when silver nanoparticles are dispersed in the copolymer. The characteristic peaks observed in FT-IR spectra confirm the formation of the copolymer. XRD pattern reveals the crystalline nature of the copolymer composites and sharp peaks in the spectra confirm the presence of silver particles. The silver nanoparticles change the surface morphology in the form of perfect encapsulation. The electrical conductivity of the polymer composites is found to vary from 10−4 S/cm to 10−6 S/cm. PL study reveals the charge transfer between the copolymer and the silver particles.
Electro-optic (EO) polymers, possessing high EO coefficient and low dielectric constant, are considered to be a new generation of nonlinear optical materials that have great application prospect in photo-communication, information storage, and data processing. The host-guest structure of EO polymers is the most typical one in this field. However, the phase separation during polarization between the host polymer and the guest nonlinear optical molecule (NLO) limits potential applications of the material. To solve the problem, a new synthetic method was designed in this paper. First, 2,4-dinitroaniline was grafted to phenol polyphosphazene by chemical method for polar improvement of the main chain. Then, another small NLO molecule was mixed into the polymer by physical method for further improvement of EO coefficient. The preparation process was studied and the structure of the product was characterized. The effects of different NLO mixing proportions and different polarizing temperatures on EO coefficient were investigated in details. Orientation stability of the sample was tested. Experimental results show that our products possess not only high EO coefficient but also good phase stability, which makes them good candidates for the application in information technology.
Nanocrystalline zinc sulfide thin films were prepared on glass substrates by chemical bath deposition method using aqueous solutions of zinc chloride, thiourea ammonium hydroxide along with non-toxic complexing agent trisodium citrate in alkaline medium at 80 °C. The effect of deposition time and annealing on the properties of ZnS thin films was investigated by X-ray diffraction, scanning electron microscopy, optical transmittance spectroscopy and four-point probe method. The X-ray diffraction analysis showed that the samples exhibited cubic sphalerite structure with preferential orientation along 〈2 0 0〉 direction. Scanning electron microscopy micrographs revealed uniform surface coverage, UV-Vis (300 nm to 800 nm) spectrophotometric measurements showed transparency of the films (transmittance ranging from 69 % to 81 %), with a direct allowed energy band gap in the range of 3.87 eV to 4.03 eV. After thermal annealing at 500 °C for 120 min, the transmittance increased up to 87 %. Moreover, the electrical conductivity of the deposited films increased with increasing of the deposition time from 0.35 × 10−4 Ω·cm−1 to 2.7 × 10−4 Ω·cm−1.
The present research is focused on developing ZnAl2O4 (gahnite) spinel as an antireflection coating material for enhanced energy conversion of polycrystalline silicon solar cells (PSSC). ZnAl2O4 has been synthesized using dual precursors, namely aluminum nitrate nonahydrate and zinc nitrate hexahydrate in ethanol media. Diethanolamine has been used as a sol stabilizer in sol-gel process for ZnAl2O4 nanosheet fabrication. ZnAl2O4 nanosheet was deposited layer-by-layer (LBL) on PSSC by spin coating method. The effect of ZnAl2O4 coating on the physical, electrical, optical properties and temperature distribution in PSSC was investigated. The synthesized antireflection coating (ARC) material bears gahnite (ZnAl2O4) spinel crystal structure composed of two dimensional (2D) nanosheets. An increase in layer thickness proves the LBL deposition of ARC on the PSSC substrate. The ZnAl2O4 2D nanosheet comprising ARC on the PSSC was tested and it exhibited a maximum of 93 % transmittance, short-circuit photocurrent of 42.364 mA/cm2 and maximum power conversion efficiency (PCE) 23.42 % at a low cell temperature (50.2 °C) for three-layer ARC, while the reference cell exhibited 33.518 mA/cm2, 15.74 % and 59.1 °C, respectively. Based on the results, ZnAl2O4 2D nanosheets have been proven as an appropriate ARC material for increasing the PCE of PSSC.
Sachin Kumar, Naven Kumar, Kamna Yadav, Annveer and R.P. Singh
DFT analyses of electronic and optical spectra of barium cadmium chalcogenides (Ba2CdX3, X = S, Se, Te) have been carried out. The study of electronic spectra has been made in terms of band structure and density of states using full potential linear augmented plane wave plus local orbital method. Band structure calculations have been carried out under the approximations PBE-GGA, PBE-Sol, LDA and TB-mBJ. Band structures of these materials show that Ba2CdS3, Ba2CdSe3 and Ba2CdTe3 crystals possess a band gap less than 1 eV, underestimated relative to the experimental/theoretical literature values. Optical spectra of these chalcogenides have been analyzed in terms of real and imaginary parts of dielectric function, reflectivity, refractive index, extinction coefficient, absorption coefficient, optical conductivity and electron energy loss. Optical results show large anisotropy along different directions. These results provide a physical basis of barium cadmium chalcogenides for potential application in optoelectronic devices.
Setia Budi, Sukro Muhab, Agung Purwanto, Budhy Kurniawan and Azwar Manaf
The effect of electrodeposition potential on the magnetic properties of the FeCoNi films has been reported in this paper. The FeCoNi electrodeposition was carried out from sulfate solution using potentiostatic technique. The obtained FeCoNi films were characterized by X-ray diffractometer (XRD), atomic absorption spectrometer (AAS) and vibrating sample magnetometer (VSM). It has been shown that the electrodeposition potential applied during the synthesis process determines the magnetic characteristics of FeCoNi films. The more negative potential is applied, the higher Ni content is in the FeCoNi alloy. At the same time, Co and Fe showed almost similar trend in which the content decreased with an increase in applied potential. The mean crystallite size of FeCoNi films was ranging from 11 nm to 15 nm. VSM evaluation indicated that the FeCoNi film is a ferromagnetic alloy with magnetic anisotropy. The high saturation magnetization of FeCoNi film was ranging from 86 A·m2/kg to 105 A·m2/kg. The film is a soft magnetic material which was revealed by a very low coercivity value in the range of 1.3 kA/m to 3.7 kA/m. Both the saturation magnetization and coercivity values decreased at a more negative electrodeposition potential.
Fucheng Yu, Hailong Hu, Bolong Wang, Haishan Li, Tianyun Song, Boyu Xu, Ling He, Shu Wang and Hongyan Duan
Al doped ZnO (AZO) thin films were prepared on silica substrates by sol-gel method. The films showed a hexagonal wurtzite structure with a preferred orientation along c-axis. Suitable Al doping dramatically improved the crystal quality compared to the undoped ZnO films. Dependent on the Al dopant concentration, the diffraction peak of (0 0 2) plane in XRD spectra showed at first right-shifting and then left-shifting, which was attributed to the change in defect concentration induced by the Al dopant. Photocatalytic properties of the AZO film were characterized by degradation of methyl orange (MO) under simulated solar light. The transmittance of the films was enhanced by the Al doping, and the maximum transmittance of 80 % in the visible region was observed in the sample with Al concentration of 1.5 at.% (mole fraction). The film with 1.5 at.% Al doping achieved also maximum photocatalytic activity of 68.6 % under solar light. The changes in the film parameters can be attributed to the variation in defect concentration induced by different Al doping content.
Tahmineh Jalali, Abdolrasoul Gharaati and Mohammad Rastegar
In this paper, employing of one-dimensional magnetophotonic crystals in infrared wavelengths range is considered. For this purpose, magnetophotonic multilayer structures, composed of magnetic defect layer surrounded by dielectric and MO Bragg mirrors, have been proposed. Ce:YIG with an optical thickness in the range of 0 to λs was used as a magnetic material. By using four by four transfer matrix method, the transmittance values and Faraday rotation (FR) angles of these structures were computed. The electric field distribution was obtained by Finite Element Method (FEM). By investigation of transmittance and FR angle of magnetophotonic crystals, it was possible to design the optimized structures with a rotation larger than 30 degrees and high transmittance. Such structures with a few micrometer thickness and fast magneto-optical (MO) responses have the potential to be used in MO devices like integrated photonic elements and sensors.