To enhance interfacial bonding between carbon fibers and epoxy matrix, the carbon fibers have been modified with multiwall carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs) using the dip- coating technique. FT-IR spectrum of the MWCNTs shows a peak at 1640 cm−1 corresponding to the stretching mode of the C=C double bond which forms the framework of the carbon nanotube sidewall. The broad peak at 3430 cm−1 is due to O–H stretching vibration of hydroxyl groups and the peak at 1712 cm−1 corresponds to the carboxylic (C=O) group attached to the carbon fiber. The peaks at 2927 cm−1 and 2862 cm−1 are assigned to C–H stretching vibration of epoxy produced at the defect sites of acid-oxidized carbon fiber surface. SEM image shows a better interface bonding between the fiber and the matrix of modified composites (MWCNTs-CF/Ep) than those of unmodified composite. The loss factor curve of CF-MWCNTs/Ep composites is the narrowest compared with neat epoxy and CF/Ep composites which evinces that the length distribution range of molecular chain segments in the matrix is the narrowest. From the dependence of the AC conductivity on temperature, we can see that σAC increases when temperature increases. The increase in electrical conductivity of the composites may be a result of the increased chain ordering due to annealing effect. The use of MWCNTs to modify the surface of carbon fiber resulted in a large amount of junctions among MWCNT causing an increase in the electrical and thermal conductivity by forming conducting paths in the matrix. The MWCNTs-CF/Ep composite shows better thermal stability than unmodified composites. The strong interaction between CF and MWCNTs can retard diffusion of small molecules from the resin matrix at high temperature and hence, result in the improved thermal stability of the modified CF/Ep composite.
Magnesium batteries are regarded as promising candidates for energy storage devices owing to their high volumetric capacity. The practical application is hindered, however, by strong electrostatic interactions between Mg2+ and the host lattice and due to the formation of a passivation layer between anode and electrolyte. V2O5 is a typical intercalation compound with a layered crystal structure ((0 0 1) interlayer spacing ~ 11.53 Å), which can act as a good host for the reversible insertion and extraction of multivalent cations. Herein, we have presented an investigation of the effects of S injection on the structure, electrochemical performance and Mg2+ diffusion in V2O5 cathode materials for Mg-ion batteries. The V2O5/S composite structure was investigated using X-ray diffraction, field-emission scanning electron microscope and energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy. The integrated electrode exhibits an improvement in the electrical and electrochemical properties compared to the V2O5 electrode. The as-prepared V2O5/S composite has an initial discharge capacity of 310 mAh·g−1 compared to 160 mAh·g−1 for the V2O5 electrode. The V2O5/S composite is a promising cathode material for magnesium-ion battery applications.
Shuiping Li, Huajun Zhu, Guilong Xu, Qing Lin, Chengshuang Wang, Qisheng Wu and Zhanhong Wang
A three-step method was used for the synthesis of mesoporous carbon sphere (MCS) material: firstly, silica (SiO2) nanoparticles were synthesized by the modified Stöber procedure; secondly, tetraethyl orthosilicate (TEOS) and cetyltrimethylammonium chloride (CTAC) were grafted onto SiO2 core nanoparticles to prepare SiO2@SiO2-CTAC hard templates; lastly, MCS material was fabricated by carbonizing and selective leaching SiO2/resorcinol-formaldehyde (RF) composites. The influence of the mass ratio of R-F/silica on the structure, morphology and crystal form was studied. The results indicate that the MCS materials have a uniform morphology. The increase of the mass ratio of R-F/silica can increase the specific surface area and pore volume. The three-step method provides a cost-effective procedure for the fabrication of MCS materials with uniform morphology.
A novel nonlinear optical crystal of potassium-boro-phthalate (KBP) was grown by a slow solvent evaporation technique. The crystalline nature and cell parameters were analyzed using X-ray diffraction (XRD) study. The presence of various functional groups was determined by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR) spectral analysis. The linear optical properties were determined by UV-Vis-NIR spectral analysis. The dielectric constant and dielectric loss of KBP were measured in the frequency range of 500 Hz to 5 MHz at different temperatures. The mechanical properties of KBP single crystal were studied using Vickers microhardness tester. The linear and nonlinear optical properties of the grown crystals were studied to assess its suitability for device fabrication.
Yasaman Khaksarfard, Hakimeh Ziyadi and Akbar Heydari
Because of special characteristics of vanadate compound, such as its sustainability, magneticity, high selectivity in reactions and catalytic character, this study aimed to preparation and analyzing novel ceramic iron vanadate (FeVO4) nanofibers. The ceramic nanofibers of iron vanadate were made by the combination of sol-gel and electrospinning methods. First, polyvinyl alcohol (PVA), as a matrix polymer, was mixed separately with ammonium metavanadate (NH4VO3) and iron (III) nitrate (Fe(NO3)3). As a result, the spinnable polymeric gel was obtained from the controlled mixture of these two precursors of ceramic material. Electrospinning of PVA/iron (III) nitrate/ammonium vanadate solution was done using an Electroris setup that enabled preparation of polymeric template nanofiber. Finally, iron vanadate nanofiber was obtained by calcination of polymer nanofiber at controlled temperature. The products were characterized with scanning electron microscope (SEM), energy dispersive X-ray spectroscope (EDX), X-ray diffraction (XRD), Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR), vibrating sample magnetometer (VSM) and Brunauer-Emmett-Teller (BET) surface area analysis.
Sumra Idrees, Zahoor Ahmad, Tashfeen Akhtar, Muhammad Aziz Choudhary, Muhammad Aftab Rafiq and Arshad Mehmood
A facile chemical approach was developed to fabricate microarrays (MAs) of Ag@polypyrrole nanocables (NCs). The strategy involved crosslinking the NCs by tetraethoxy silane (TEOS) under continuous pulse sonication without using a substrate. The material was characterized by scanning electron microscope (SEM) coupled with EDX, which revealed the longitudinal interconnections within the nanocables and creating unidirectional alignment in the form of MAs. FT-IR and Raman spectroscopy was employed to characterize the encapsulating polymer as polypyrrole (ppy) around Ag nanowires (NWs). The microarrays produced red shift in surface plasmon resonance (SPR) of Ag NWs, and drastically improved the thermal stability and conductivity of encasing ppy. It has imparted anisotropic conductivity effect on ppy which resulted in sharp decrease in resistivity from 8.35 × 1010 Ω to 2.449 Ω, when NCs were isolated and crosslinked into MAs form, respectively. The drastic decrease in resistivity of ppy was due to the anisotropic effect produced by the MAs format of NWs.
C. Eevon, M.K. Halimah, M.N. Azlan, R. El-Mallawany and S.L. Hii
New glass samples with composition (1 – x)[(TeO2)70(B2O3)30] – x(Gd2O3) with x = 0.2, 0.4, 0.6, 0.8 and 1.0 in mol% have been synthesized by conventional melt-quenching techniques. X-ray diffraction (XRD) studies were performed in order to confirm the amorphous nature of the samples. The density of the samples has been found to vary with the Gd2O3 content, whereas an opposite trend has been observed in the molar volume. The analysis of Fourier Transform Infrared (FT-IR) spectroscopy of the samples showed that the glass network is mainly built of TeO3, TeO4, BO3 and BO4 units. The addition of Gd2O3 changed the refractive index, optical band gap and Urbach energy of the glass samples. The thermal properties of the studied glasses were investigated by measuring the thermal diffusivity of the samples by using photoflash method at room temperature.
Na2WO4 films have been grown at 400 °C using thermal evaporation technique. Their structural properties were characterized by XRD, while their chemical composition was verified by both EDX and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS). The evolution of crystallinity was studied as a function of film thickness that ranged from 500 nm to 3000 nm. The grain size increased with increasing film thickness. The surface morphology of the prepared films was studied using scanning electron microscope (SEM) and atomic force microscopy (AFM). It has been observed that the average transmittance of samples in the visible and near infrared range has varied from 90 % to 78 % with the film thickness. The optical band gap of the Na2WO4 films varied from 3.8 eV to 4.1 eV. The crystalline size increased with increasing thickness and showed better sensing response to gases. Thus, this study confirmed the possibility of using Na2WO4 thick films as a sensor element for detection of ethanol (C2H5OH), acetone (C3H6O) methanol (CH3OH) and ammonia hydroxide (NH4OH) vapor at room temperature, where thicker films exhibited sensing properties with a maximum sensitivity at 25 °C in air, especially for NH4OH.
A simple and effective hydrothermal synthesis of spherical α-Ni(OH)2 particles and α-Ni(OH)2/carbon composites was proposed. The mechanism of ultrafine α-Ni(OH)2 phase forming and correlations between synthesis conditions, morphology, electrical conductivity were analyzed. It was found that carbon nanoparticles form an electric conductive cover on nickel hydroxide microparticles during synthesis which increases overall electronic conductivity of the composite material. α-Ni(OH)2 and α-Ni(OH)2/C samples were tested as electrodes for hybrid supercapacitors. It was found that carbon coverings stabilize α-Ni(OH)2 phase in the alkaline medium. The comparison of the influence of laser irradiation and ultrasonic treatment on the electrochemical performance of the obtained materials was made.
Cerium and tin co-doped cadmium zinc sulfide nanoparticles (CdZnS:Ce)Sn were synthesized by chemical bath deposition method with a fixed concentration of Ce (3.84 mol%) and three different concentrations of Sn (2 mol % and 4 mol% and 6 mol%). They showed broad photoluminescence spectra in the visible region under the ultraviolet excitation with a wavelength of 325 nm. The photoluminescence emission peaks were obtained at 540 nm, 560 nm and 570 nm for CdZnS, CdZnS:Ce and (CdZnS:Ce)Sn thin films, respectively having different concentrations of Sn. It has been observed that the photoluminescence emission peak shifted to higher wavelength region with an increase in intensity by Ce doping and Ce–Sn co-doping. Further enhancement in luminescence peak intensity has been observed by increasing concentration of Sn in (CdZnS:Ce)Sn films. Average crystallite size, measured from XRD data, was found to be increased with increasing concentration of Sn. An increase in the concentration of Sn shifted the UV-Vis absorption edge toward the higher wavelength side. Energy band gap for undoped CdZnS and Ce–Sn co-doped CdZnS varied from 2.608 eV to 2.405 eV. The SEM micrographs of CdZnS and (CdZnS:Ce)Sn films showed the leafy-like and ball-like structures. The presence of Sn and Ce was confirmed by EDAX analysis.