In coastal regions, earthquakes caused severe damage to marine structures. Many researchers have conducted numerical investigations in order to understand the dynamic behavior of these structures. The most frequently used model in numerical calculations of soil is the linear-elastic perfectly plastic model with a Mohr-Coulomb failure criterion (MC model). It is recommended to use this model to represent a first-order approximation of soil behavior. Therefore, it is necessary to accommodate soil constitutive models for the specific geotechnical problems.
In this paper, three soil constitutive models with different accuracy were applied by using the two-dimensional finite element software PLAXIS to study the behavior of pile-supported wharf embedded in rock dike, under the 1989 Loma Prieta earthquake. These models are: a linear-elastic perfectly plastic model (MC model), an elastoplastic model with isotropic hardening (HS model), and the Hardening Soil model with an extension to the small-strain stiffness (HSS model).
A typical pile-supported wharf structure with batter piles from the western United States ports was selected to perform the study. The wharf included cut-slope (sliver) rock dike configuration, which is constituted by a thin layer of rockfill overlaid by a slope of loose sand. The foundation soil and the backfill soil behind the wharf were all dense sand. The soil parameters used in the study were calibrated in numerical soil element tests (Oedometer and Triaxial tests).
The wharf displacement and pore pressure results obtained using models with different accuracy were compared to the numerical results of Heidary-Torkamani et al. It was found that the Hardening Soil model with small-strain stiffness (HSS model) gives clearly better results than the MC and HS models.
Afterwards, the pile displacements in sloping rockfill were analyzed. The displacement time histories of the rock dike at the top and at the toe were also exposed. It can be noted that during the earthquake there was a significant lateral ground displacement at the upper part of the embankment due to the liquefaction of loose sand. This movement caused displacement at the dike top greater than its displacement at the toe. Consequently, the behavior of the wharf was affected and the pile displacements were important, specially the piles closest to the dike top.
This article presents the methodology and results of single shear tests of bolt rods under dynamic impact loading generated by means of a drop hammer. Comparative analysis was also performed for bolt rod load capacity, stress and shear work under static and dynamic (impact) loading. The developed method of single shear testing of bolt rods under impact loading makes it possible to obtain repeatable test results concerning maximum bolt rod shearing force, shear stress and shear work values.
Comparative shear tests of four types of bolt rods under static and impact loading showed that the APB-type bolt rods made of AP770 steel, which was characterised by having the highest strength, exhibited the greatest shear work. AM22-type bolt rods exhibited a very similar work value. Though the AM22-type bolt rods made of A500sh steel demonstrated lower strength than the APB-type bolts, as well as a smaller diameter and cross section, they dissipated the impact energy better thanks to their higher plasticity. This could indicate the direction of optimisation for bolt rods in order to increase their impact strength.
Mathematical relationships were also formulated for selected tests, describing the real single shear courses F d =f(t) of bolts under impact loading. The obtained relationships could be applied in the load assessment process of bolt rods intended for use under roof caving, tremor and rock burst conditions.
This article presents a modified incremental model describing pre-failure deformations of granular soils under classical triaxial conditions. The original shape of equations has been proposed by Sawicki and Świdziński [, ]. A new form of equations that are consistent with the proposed definitions of deviatoric loading and unloading is suggested. Triaxial tests necessary for calibrating the proposed model have been performed. The modified model is used to simulate the deformations and stability of sand for every pre-failure loading path and makes it possible to describe the behaviour of granular soil under both drained and undrained conditions.
A comparison of experimental and numerical results is presented. All investigations were performed in a classical tri-axial apparatus.
The paper presents the results of laboratory tests of plastic limit wP and liquid limit wL of Eemian gyttja characterized by different organic matter content Iom and calcium carbonate content CaCO3. Comparison of the liquid limit wL determined with the use of the Casagrande apparatus wLC and a cone penetrometer with cones having apex angles of 60° wL60 and 30° wL30 is shown. Based on statistical analysis of the test results, single- and two-factor empirical relationships for evaluating the plastic limit wP and liquid limit wL of Eemian gyttja depending on the organic matter content Iom and/or calcium carbonate content CaCO3 are presented in this study.
In this article, the computational methodology of the catenary–train–track system vibration analysis is presented and used to estimate the influence of vehicle body vibrations on the pantograph–catenary dynamic interaction. This issue is rarely referred in the literature, although any perturbations appearing at the pantograph–catenary interface are of great importance for high-speed railways. Vehicle body vibrations considered in this article are induced by the passage of train through the track stiffness discontinuity, being a frequent cause of significant dynamic effects. First, the most important assumptions of the computational model are presented, including the general idea of decomposing catenary–train–track dynamic system into two main subsystems and the concept of one-way coupling between them. Then, the pantograph base vibrations calculated for two train speeds (60 m/s, 100 m/s) and two cases of track discontinuity (a sudden increase and a sudden decrease in the stiffness of track substrate) are analyzed. Two cases of the railway vehicle suspension are considered – a typical two-stage suspension and a primary suspension alone. To evaluate catenary–pantograph dynamic interaction, the dynamic uplift of the contact wire at steady arm and the pantograph contact force is computed. It is demonstrated that an efficiency of the two-stage suspension grows with the train speed; hence, such vehicle suspension effectively suppresses strong sudden shocks of vehicle body, appearing while the train passes through the track stiffness discontinuity at a high speed. In a hypothetical case when the one-stage vehicle suspension is used, the pantograph base vibrations may increase the number of contact loss events at the catenary–pantograph interface.
Time dependence of soft soils has already been thoroughly investigated. The knowledge on creep and relaxation phenomena is generally available in the literature. However, it is still rarely applied in practice. Regarding the organic soils, geotechnical engineers mostly base their calculations on the simple assumptions. Yet, as presented within this article, the rate-dependent behaviour of soft soils is a very special and important feature. It influences both the strength and the stiffness of a soil depending on time. It is, thus, significant to account for time dependence in the geotechnical design when considering the soft soils. This can result in a more robust and economic design of geotechnical structures. Hence, the up-to-date possibilities of regarding creep in practice, which are provided by the existing theories, are reviewed herein.
In this article, we first justify the importance of creep effects in practical applications. Next, we present the fundamental theories explaining the time-dependent behaviour of organic soils. Finally, the revision of the existing constitutive models that can be used in numerical simulations involving soft soils is introduced. Both the models that are implemented in the commercial geotechnical software and some more advanced models that take into account further aspects of soft soils behaviour are revised. The assumptions, the basic equations along with the advantages and the drawbacks of the considered models are described.
This paper presents an efficient method and its usage for the three-dimensional random bearing capacity evaluation for square and rectangular footings. One of the objectives of the study is to deliver graphs that can be used to easily estimate the approximated values of coefficients of variations of undrained bearing capacity. The numerical calculations were based on the proposed method that connects three-dimensional failure mechanism, simulated annealing optimization scheme and spatial averaging. The random field is used for describing the spatial variability of undrained shear strength. The proposed approach is in accordance with a constant covariance matrix concept, that results in a highly efficient tool for estimating the probabilistic characteristics of bearing capacity. As a result, numerous three-dimensional simulations were performed to create the graphs. The considered covariance matrix is a result of Vanmarcke’s spatial averaging discretization of a random field in the dissipation regions to the single random variables. The matrix describes mutual correlation between each dissipation region (or between those random variables). However, in the presented approach, the matrix was obtained for the expected value of undrained shear strength and keep constant during Monte Carlo simulations. The graphs were established in dimensionless coordinates that vary in the observable in practice ranges of parameters (i.e., values of fluctuation scales, foundation sizes and shapes). Examples of usage were given in the study to illustrate the application possibility of the graphs. Moreover, the comparison with the approach that uses individually determined covariance matrix is shown.
Two models of vibrations of the Euler–Bernoulli beam under a moving force, based on two different versions of the nonlocal gradient theory of elasticity, namely, the Eringen model, in which the strain is a function of stress gradient, and the nonlocal model, in which the stress is a function of strains gradient, were studied and compared. A dynamic response of a finite, simply supported beam under a moving force was evaluated. The force is moving along the beam with a constant velocity. Particular solutions in the form of an infinite series and some solutions in a closed form as well as the numerical results were presented.
The article addresses the application of non-classical operational calculus to approximative solutions of engineering problems. The engineering-sound examples show that a continuous–discrete problem transformation from differential unequivocal problem to a differential wildcard problem, triggering a change in solution quality. A number of approximative methods are capable to alter both quantitative and qualitative solution effects.
The algorithm presented in this paper is intended for the analysis of deformations of shells in the construction phase of soil-shell objects when strain gauges and geodetic measurements are used. During the construction of such an object, large displacement values occur and the impact of axial forces on the displacement of a corrugated metal sheet is small. Internal forces (strain gauges), as well as the displacements of a selected circumferential band of the shell are determined directly from such observations.
The paper presents two examples of the analysis of large span shell structures of constructed objects, as well as the assessment of the effectiveness of the finite difference method (FDM) in beam schemes. Good deformation mapping was indicated using the collocation algorithm and the differential approach to the solution when there is a dense mesh and regular distribution of measuring points. In the analysed examples, a significant divergence between the support conditions adopted in the FEM calculation models and the actual static conditions in the objects was indicated. The collocation algorithm is especially designed for such situations. Collocation points in such a solution are used to consider a beam – separated from a structure and without boundary constraints, but with specific changes in curvature – as a reference system, which is determined from the geodetic measurements of two collocation points.