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CFD Approach to Modelling Hydrodynamic Characteristics of Underwater Glider

Abstract

Autonomous underwater gliders are buoyancy propelled vehicles. Their way of propulsion relies upon changing their buoyancy with internal pumping systems enabling them up and down motions, and their forward gliding motions are generated by hydrodynamic lift forces exerted on a pair of wings attached to a glider hull. In this study lift and drag characteristics of a glider were performed using Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) approach and results were compared with the literature. Flow behavior, lift and drag forces distribution at different angles of attack were studied for Reynolds numbers varying around 105 for NACA0012 wing configurations. The variable of the glider was the angle of attack, the velocity was constant. Flow velocity was 0.5 m/s and angle of the body varying from −8° to 8° in steps of 2°. Results from the CFD constituted the basis for the calculation the equations of motions of glider in the vertical plane. Therefore, vehicle motion simulation was achieved through numeric integration of the equations of motion. The equations of motions will be solved in the MatLab software. This work will contribute to dynamic modelling and three-dimensional motion simulation of a torpedo shaped underwater glider.

Open access
Comparative Analysis of Macro- and Microstructure of Printed Elements in the FDM, SLS and MJ Technologies

Abstract

The article presents research conducted with the project: ‘Additive manufacturing in conduction with optical methods used for optimization of 3D models’’ [2]. The article begins with the description of properties of the materials used in three different additive technologies – Fused Deposition Modelling (FDM), Selective Laser Sintering (SLS) and Material Jetting (MJ). The next part focuses on the comparative analysis of macro- and microstructure of specimens printed in order to test selected materials in additive technologies mentioned above. In this research two types of specimens were used: dumbbell specimens and rectangular prism with hole specimens. In order to observe macrostructure specimens, they were subjected to load test until it broke. In the case of observing microstructure, they were cut in some places. Each of described additive technologies characterizes by both different way of printing and used materials. These variables have a significant influence on macro- and microstructure and fracture appearance. FDM technology specimens printed of ABS material characterized by texture surface appearance. SLS technology specimens printed of PA12 material characterized by amorphous structure. MJ technology specimens printed of VeroWhite Plus material characterized by fracture appearance which had quasi- fatigue features. The microstructure of these specimens was uniform with visible inclusions.

Open access
Comparison of Composite Laminates Machining Methods and its Influence on Process Temperature and Edge Quality

Abstract

The article presents the description of technological trials and the results of three methods of machining carbon fiber reinforced composites panels. It also reviews the literature concerned heat affected zone in composites and its influence on material properties. As a part of the research, the cutting method using diamond coated saw was tested, as well as the milling method with two different types of carbide milling cutters. The processing of the panels was done using 4-axis CNC machine with special adapter for cutting discs in Composite Testing Laboratory (Center for Composite Technologies, Warsaw Institute of Aviation). The methods were compared in terms of machined edge quality and panel temperature during the processes. For this purpose, thermocouples were mounted into panels. Records from thermocouples were included. Edge quality and surface roughness have been checked by microscopic observation. Additionally, samples machined by each evaluated processing method were tested using differential scanning calorimetry (DSC). The method was used to determine the glass transition temperature of the tested material. The article conclusions contain a comparison of three processing methods in terms of cutting quality, process temperature, processing method productivity as well as DSC tests results.

Open access
Janus – A New Approach to Air Combat Pilot Training

Abstract

Advanced jet training still relies on old concepts and solutions that are no longer efficient when considering the current and forthcoming changes in air combat. The cost of those old solutions to develop and maintain combat pilot skills are important, adding even more constraints to the training limitations. The requirement of having a trainer aircraft able to perform also light combat aircraft operational mission is adding unnecessary complexity and cost without any real operational advantages to air combat mission training.

Thanks to emerging technologies, the JANUS project will study the feasibility of a brand-new concept of agile manoeuvrable training aircraft and an integrated training system, able to provide a live, virtual and constructive environment. The JANUS concept is based on a lightweight, low-cost, high energy aircraft associated to a ground based Integrated Training System providing simulated and emulated signals, simulated and real opponents, combined with real-time feedback on pilot’s physiological characteristics: traditionally embedded sensors are replaced with emulated signals, simulated opponents are proposed to the pilot, enabling out of sight engagement. JANUS is also providing new cost effective and more realistic solutions for “Red air aircraft” missions, organised in so-called “Aggressor Squadrons”.

Open access
Theoretical and Experimental Review of Applied Mechanical Tests for Carbon Composites with Thermoplastic Polymer Matrix

Abstract

This article has a theoretical and experimental character. It presents the characteristics of two main thermoplastics used in the aerospace industry – poly ether ether ketone (PEEK) and poly phenylene sulphide (PPS). The selected materials are compounds for the production of thermoplastic polymer matrix composites. The paper presents a literature review of the application of thermoplastic polymer matrix composite materials in aviation. Additionally, the paper focuses on the characteristics of carbon fibre-reinforced polymer (CFRP) which plays an important role in the production of aerospace components. Testing methods have been chosen on the basis of the type of composite matrix. The article contains the most important mechanical properties and general characteristics of thermoplastics used as a matrix for CFRP type composites used in the aerospace industry. Individual test procedures which allow for the evaluation of mechanical properties of composite materials on a thermoplastic polymer matrix, have been described. Mechanical tests such as static tensile test and bending of short beams were carried out in order to examine CFRP composites.

Open access
Validation of Numerical Models Used for Designing the Composite Blade for ILX-27 Rotorcraft

Abstract

The paper presents the validation procedure of the model used in the analysis of the composite blade for the rotor of the ILX-27 rotorcraft, designed and manufactured in the Institute of Aviation, by means of numerical analyses and tests of composite elements. Numerical analysis using finite element method and experimental studies of three research objects made of basic materials comprising the blade structure – carbon-epoxy laminate, glass-epoxy composite made of roving and foam filler – were carried out. The elements were in the form of four-point bent beams, and for comparison of the results the deflection arrow values in the middle of the beam and axial deformations on the upper and lower surfaces were selected. The procedure allowed to adjust the discrete model to real objects and to verify and correct the material data used in the strength analysis of the designed blade.

Open access
A High-Altitude Balloon Platform for Space Life Sciences Education

Abstract

High-altitude balloons (HABs) present a valuable and cost-effective tool for educators and students to access the conditions that are analogous to space and extraterrestrial environments in the Earth’s upper atmosphere. Historically, HABs have been used for meteorological measurements, observation, sampling of aerosols, and exposure of samples to upper atmosphere environments. The Earth’s stratosphere allows researchers access to a unique combination of wideband solar radiation, extreme cold, rarefied air, low humidity, and acute ionizing radiation—conditions that are relevant to space biology research. Here, we describe a reproducible payload for a HAB mission that can be constructed, launched, and retrieved for about $3,000. This general standard operating procedure can be used by educators, community scientists, and research teams working with limited resources.

Open access
Investigation of Murine T-Cells and Cancer Cells under Thermal Stressors and 2D Slow Rotating System Effects as a Testbed for Suborbital Flights

Abstract

Research indicates that exposure to microgravity leads to immune system dysregulation. However, there is a lack of clear evidence on the specific reasons and precise mechanisms accounting for these immune system changes. Past studies investigating space travel-induced alterations in immunological parameters report many conflicting results, explained by the role of certain confounders, such as cosmic radiation, individual body environment, or differences in experimental design. To minimize the variability in results and to eliminate some technical challenges, we advocate conducting thorough feasibility studies prior to actual suborbital or orbital space experiments. We show how exposure to suborbital flight stressors and the use of a two-dimensional slow rotating device affect T-cells and cancer cells survivability. To enhance T-cell activation and viability, we primed them alone or in combination with IL-2 and IL-12 cytokines. Viability of T-cells was assessed before, during the experiment, and at the end of the experiment for which T-cells were counted every day for the last 4 days to allow the cells to form clear structures and do not disturb their evolution into various geometries. The slow rotating device could be considered a good system to perform T-cell activation studies and develop cell aggregates for various types of cells that react differently to thermal stressors.

Open access
Effect of macromolecular mass transport in microgravity protein crystallization

Abstract

To investigate the effect of macromolecular transport and the incorporation of protein aggregate impurities in growing crystals, experiments were performed on the International Space Station (ISS) and compared with control experiments performed in a 1G laboratory environment. Crystal growth experiments for hen egg-white lysozyme (HEWL) and Plasmodium falciparum glutathione S-transferase (PfGST) were monitored using the ISS Light Microscopy Module (LMM). Experiments were performed applying the liquid–liquid counter diffusion crystallization method using rectangular, optically transparent capillaries. To analyze the quantity of impurity incorporated into growing crystals, stable fluorescently labeled protein aggregates were prepared and subsequently added at different percent concentrations to nonlabeled monomeric protein suspensions. For HEWL, a covalent cross-linked HEWL dimer was fluorescently labeled, and for PfGST, a stable tetramer was prepared. Crystallization solutions containing different protein aggregate ratios were prepared. The frozen samples were launched on 19.02.2017 via SpaceX-10 mission and immediately transferred to a -80°C freezer on the ISS. Two series of crystallization experiments were performed on ISS, one during 26.02.2017 to 10.03.2017 and a second during 16.06.2017 to 23.06.2017. A comparison of crystal growth rate and size showed different calculated average growth rates as well as different dimensions for crystals growing in different positions along the capillary. The effect of macromolecular mass transport on crystal growth in microgravity was experimentally calculated. In parallel, the percentage of incorporated fluorescent aggregate into the crystals was monitored utilizing the fluorescent LMM and ground-based fluorescent microscopes.

Open access