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Open access

Kanupriya Sharma, Praveen Kumar and Gaurav Verma

Abstract

This work presents a systematic study of the effect of ZnSe nanocrystals (NCs) concentration on the optical and luminescent properties of poly N-vinylcarbazole (PVK) polymer nanocomposites. The ZnSe nanocrystals were synthesized by a simple coprecipitation chemical route, while PVK:ZnSe nanocomposite films were fabricated using the spin coating technique. The samples were characterized by XRD, TEM, SEM, UV-Vis and fluorescence techniques. The X-ray diffraction and TEM studies confirmed the particle size, microstructure and spherical shape of the synthesized nanocrystals. The ZnSe nanocrystals in PVK caused a decrease in optical gap with increasing concentration of nanocrystals. The emission spectra exhibited augmentation in intensity up to 70 wt.% of nanoparticles while further addition resulted in a decrease in luminescence. The structure-property relationships obtained for the present system are important for developing low cost illumination devices.

Open access

Andrzej Sikora, Magdalena Moczała and Bartosz Boharewicz

Abstract

In this paper, we present a novel approach developed in order to increase the reliability and accuracy of AFM investigation of morphological changes in a nanocomposite due to exposure to the media causing its degradation. By precise sample positioning and repetitive determination of the roughness changes at specific spots, we were able to create space-related degradation profiles. As the multi-step experiment based on exposure/scanning cycle was performed, we were able to observe a unique response of investigated samples revealing spatial inhomogeneity of the material. In order to present the measurement methodology, we used polystyrene samples containing various quantities of PC61BM nanofiller (0 %, 5 %, 10 % and 20 % of mass proportion), which was exposed to 370 nm UV radiation. Obtained data can be recognized as specific fingerprints of investigated materials. The solution based on creation and analysis of degradation profiles can be particularly useful for diagnostics of nanomaterials and nanocomposites to test their resistance to various conditions.

Open access

Raad S. Sabry and Roonak Abdul Salam A. Alkareem

Abstract

ZnO-CuO flower-like hetero-nanostructures were successfully prepared by combining hydrothermal and dip coating methods. Flower-like hetero-nanostructures of ZnO-CuO were examined by X-ray diffraction (XRD), field emission scanning electron microscopy (FE-SEM), and UV-Vis. The sensing properties of ZnO-CuO flower-like hetero-nanostructures to volatile organic compounds (VOCs) were evaluated in a chamber containing acetone or isopropanol gas at room temperature. The sensitivity of ZnO-CuO flower-like hetero-nanostructures to VOCs was enhanced compared to that of pure leafage-like ZnO nanostructures. Response and recovery times were about 5 s and 6 s to 50 ppm acetone, and 10 s and 8 s to 50 ppm isopropanol, respectively. The sensing performance of ZnO-CuO flower-like hetero-nanostructures was attributed to the addition of CuO that led to formation of p-n junctions at the interface between the CuO and ZnO. In addition, the sensing mechanism was briefly discussed.

Open access

Praveen Kumar and Kanupriya Sharma

Abstract

Organic/inorganic hybrid materials consisting of quantum dots and conjugate polymers are important for the application in light emitting devices. In the present work, we have studied the effect of CdS and CdS/ZnO nanoparticle addition on the structure and fluorescence properties of spin coated PVK (poly(N-vinyl carbozole)) nanocomposite films. CdS nanoparticles were synthesized by simple co-precipitation technique and ZnO shell was grown on the CdS nanoparticles by simple wet chemical approach. The nanoparticles and the hybrid nanocomposites have been characterized by using XRD, SEM, FT-IR, optical absorption and fluorescence spectroscopic techniques. The absorption peak for pure PVK remains at 345.5 nm accompanied with minor hump ~480 nm resulting from the incorporation of nanoparticles. It has been observed that the addition of nanoparticles to the hybrid material results in the enhancement of fluorescence intensity at 410 nm to 450 nm spectral regions. These results are important for the development of new light emitting devices at low fabrication costs.

Open access

Subhash Chand and Pankaj Sharma

Abstract

Bottom-up technique has been used to synthesize Ag-chalcogenide nanoparticles. This work reports on the synthesis of Ag2Se by varying the molar ratio of capping agent and pH of the solution. The synthesized nanoparticles have been characterized in terms of structural parameters using X-ray diffraction. By this technique, various parameters such as crystallite size, dislocation density and strain of the nanoparticles were calculated. The crystallite size decreased with the increase in pH of the solution. The optical characterization was carried out by UV-Vis-NIR spectrophotometer. With the decrease in the crystallite size, a blue shift in the absorption peak of the nanoparticles was observed. These properties are suitable for energy harvesting with the help of photovoltaics.

Open access

B. Ying and W.G. Sheng

Abstract

A new hydrated rare earth borate K2O_CaO_4B2O3_12H2O:Eu was prepared by water solution method. The crystal structure, morphology, luminescence properties were investigated via XRD, IR, TG-DSC and SEM, respectively, and it was shown that one single crystal was obtained via spontaneous crystallization. The luminescent properties were also investigated by F-4600 spectrophotometer.

Open access

M. Abbas, N. A. Shah, K. Jehangir, M. Fareed and A. Zaidi

Abstract

Zinc telluride (ZnTe) polycrystalline films have been grown on well-cleaned glass substrates by thermal vacuum evaporation technique using 99.99 % pure ZnTe powder as an evaporant. The samples were prepared at different substrate temperatures, rates of evaporation and thicknesses. The X-ray diffraction was used to study the structure of the films. The structures of the samples were found to be polycrystalline with preferred (1 1 1) orientation. Transmission spectra of all ZnTe films were recorded in the range of 300 nm to 2500 nm. The films were electrically characterized using Hall effect measurements at room temperature. It has been stated that the electrical resistivity, mobility and carrier concentration are strongly influenced by the substrate temperature. From the SEM results, it is clear that the surface of ZnTe is very smooth with occasional large particles on it.

Open access

Małgorzata Musztyfaga-Staszuk, Łukasz Major, Grzegorz Putynkowski, Anna Sypień, Katarzyna Gawlińska, Piotr Panek and Paweł Zięba

Abstract

Potential impact of copper replacing silver in the paste used for the front electrode fabrication in crystalline silicon solar cells was investigated. The copper was applied as a new CuXX component with about 2 wt.% to 6 wt.% share of XX modifier. The generated CuXX molecules were analyzed using transmission microscopy. Based on the commercial Du Pont PV19B paste, CuXX and XX materials, the new PV19B/CuXX paste with 51 wt.% share of Cu and the PV19B/XX paste with 51 wt.% share of XX only were developed. Comparative studies of the effect of the commercial PV19B paste made by DuPont Company, and the pastes with the CuXX component and with the modifier XX alone on the electrical parameters of solar cells produced on crystalline silicon were carried out. The solar cells were characterized by the current-voltage technique. As a final result, the Cz-Si solar cell with the 51 wt.% share of Cu in the front electrode having a series resistance of 0.551 Ω·cm2, an efficiency of 14.08 % and, what is more important, the fill factor of 0.716, was obtained. It is the best result ever obtained concerning direct Cu application for solar cells fabricated in thick-film technology.

Open access

Tran Hoang Quang Minh, Nguyen Huu Khanh Nhan, Nguyen Doan Quoc Anh, Tran Thanh Nam and Hsiao-Yi Lee

Abstract

Based on some advantageous properties, such as fast response time, environment friendliness, small size, long lifetime, and high efficiency, white LEDs are increasingly used in common illumination applications. In this research, by co-doping of redemitting Sr2Si5N8:Eu2+ phosphor and adding SiO2 particles to yellow-emitting YAG:Ce phosphor compounds, a new approach for improving color uniformity and color rending index of remote-phosphor structure white LEDs is proposed and demonstrated. The obtained results clearly indicate that the color rendering index (CRI) and color uniformity (DCCT) significantly depend on Sr2Si5N8:Eu2+ concentration. The results provide a potential practical solution for manufacturing remote-phosphor white LEDs (RP-WLEDs) in the near future.

Restricted access

Dawei Gao, Chunxia Wang, Yu Jian, Weiwei Li and Pengyu Dong

Abstract

Highly ordered TiO2 nanotube arrays (TiO2 NTs) were prepared by anodic oxidizing method on a surface of Ti substrate. Fabrication of nitrogen-doped TiO2 nanotube arrays (N-TiO2 NTs) was carried out by immersion in ammonia solution. CdS nanoparticles loaded N-doped TiO2 nanotube arrays (CdS/N-TiO2 NTs) were obtained by successive ionic layer adsorption and reaction (SILAR) technique. The samples were characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD), X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), field emission scanning electron microscopy (FE-SEM), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), high resolution transmission electron microscopy (HRTEM), photoluminescence (PL) emission spectra and ultraviolet-visible (UV-Vis) diffuse reflectance spectroscopy (DRS). The results indicate that the TiO2 nanotube diameter and wall thickness are 100 nm to 120 nm and 20 nm to 30 nm, respectively. Moreover, the morphology and structure of the highly ordered TiO2 NTs are not affected by N-doping. Furthermore, CdS nanoparticles are evenly distributed on the surface of TiO2 NTs. Finally, the photocatalytic activity of CdS/N-TiO2 NTs was evaluated by degradation of MO under visible-light irradiation. Compared with TiO2 NTs, N-TiO2 NTs, CdS/N-TiO2 NTs exhibited enhanced photocatalytic properties, and the highest degradation rate of CdS/N-TiO2NTs could reach 97.6 % after 90 min of irradiation.