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Abstract

Introduction

Malignant catarrhal fever (MCF) is a rare, under-explored lethal viral infection of cattle with gammaherpesvirus aetiological agents. Most often, the disease occurs on farms where cattle and sheep are kept together. However, other trigger mechanisms and environmental factors contribute. This study investigates the causation of MCF.

Material and Methods

An outbreak of MCF occurred in June - August 2017 in Kharchev village in Irkutsk Oblast, Russia. In this paper, we provide epidemiological (sanitary status of pastures, watering places, and premises) and weather data during the outbreak, and descriptions of the clinical signs and post-mortem changes in cattle. The virus was detected and isolated from pathological material samples and identified by molecular methods.

Results

Extreme weather conditions, mixed-herd cattle and sheep farming, and unsatisfactory feed quality contributed to the outbreak. A virus related to herpesvirus OvHV2 was isolated and typed (MCF/Irkutsk/2017). Phylogenetic analysis showed its close genetic relationship to isolates from cattle and sheep in Germany, USA, and the Netherlands.

Conclusion

Sporadic outbreaks of MCF caused by biotic and abiotic factors together are typical for the Russian Federation, and the Irkutsk outbreak epitomised this. Temperature anomalies caused pasture depletion, resulting in feed and water deficiency for grazing animals and dehydration and acidosis. Heat stress in animals ultimately led to the occurrence of MCF in the herd.

Abstract

Introduction

Cysticercosis caused by the larval stage of Taenia hydatigena is economically the most important endemic parasitic disease in Iraq. Few data are available relating to the genetic divergence of this helminth. This study aimed to molecularly characterise Cysticercus tenuicollis isolates from sheep in Sulaymaniyah province, Iraq.

Material and Methods

DNA extraction and amplification of specimens of C. tenuicollis from 46 sheep were conducted by PCR for the mitochondrial 12S rRNA gene. The 19 amplicons were subjected to purification and partial sequencing.

Results

Five 12S rRNA nucleotide sequence haplotypes were found. The pairwise nucleotide difference between haplotypes of 12S rRNA gene ranged from 0.2% to 0.7%. Four out of the five haplotypes of C. tenuicollis contained one to two base mutations and were discovered in Iraq for the first time, and this may be a unique mutation globally which has not been recorded previously. Three newly recorded haplotypes contained only one single mutation, and the other one contained two mutations. Phylogenetic analysis showed that all isolated strains were closely related to Iranian sheep isolates.

Conclusions

Four new strains of T. hydatigena were discovered for the first time in the study area.

Abstract

Introduction

The plate counting method widely used at present to discern viable from non-viable Brucella in the host or cell is time-consuming and laborious. Therefore, it is necessary to establish a rapid, simple method for detecting and counting viable Brucella organisms.

Material and Methods

Using propidium monoazide (PMA) to inhibit amplification of DNA from dead Brucella, a novel, rapid PMA-quantitative PCR (PMA-qPCR) detection method for counting viable Brucella was established. The standard recombinant plasmid with the target BCSP31 gene fragment inserted was constructed for drawing a standard curve. The reaction conditions were optimised, and the sensitivity, specificity, and repeatability were analysed.

Results

The optimal exposure time and working concentration of PMA were 10 min and 15 μg/mL, respectively. The correlation coefficient (R2) of the standard curve was 0.999. The sensitivity of the method was 103 CFU/mL, moreover, its specificity and repeatability also met the requirements. The concentration of B. suis measured by the PMA-qPCR did not differ significantly from that measured by the plate counting method, and the concentrations of viable bacteria in infected cells determined by the two methods were of the same order of magnitude.

Conclusion

In this study, a rapid and simple PMA-qPCR counting method for viable Brucella was established, which will facilitate related research.

Abstract

Introduction

Salmonellosis is a zoonotic disease, and Salmonella spp. can sometimes be found in dogs and cats, posing a risk to human health. In this study, the prevalence and antimicrobial susceptibility of faecal Salmonella were investigated in pet dogs and cats in Xuzhou, Jiangsu Province, China.

Material and Methods

Faecal samples from 243 dogs and 113 cats, at seven pet clinics, were tested between March 2018 and May 2019. Each Salmonella isolate was characterised using serotyping and antimicrobial susceptibility tests.

Results

The prevalence of Salmonella was 9.47% in dogs and 1.77% in cats. Among the 25 isolates, eight serotypes of Salmonella enterica subsp. enterica were detected, S. Kentucky (n = 11), S. Indiana (n = 5), and S. Typhimurium (n = 4) predominating. S. Derby, S. Toucra, S. Sandiego, S. Newport, and S. Saintpaul all occurred singly. The 23 Salmonella strains found in dogs were from seven different serovars, while the two strains in cats were from two. The highest resistance rates were found for tetracycline (92%), azithromycin (88%), cefazolin (84%), nalidixic acid (80%), ampicillin (80%), ceftriaxone (80%), and streptomycin (76%). Resistance to three or more antimicrobial agents was detected in 24 (96%) isolates. Most of the S. Kentucky and S. Indiana isolates were multi-drug resistant to more than 11 agents.

Conclusion

The carriage rate was far higher in dogs than in cats from Xuzhou. Some isolated strains were highly resistant to antimicrobials used to treat infections in humans and pets, which may raise the risk of humans being infected with multi-drug resistant Salmonella via close contact with pets.

Abstract

Introduction

Mobile phones (MP) and other electronic and communication devices that are used daily expose users to electromagnetic fields (EMF) and contribute to an increasing incidence of neurological disorders. Brain tissue is the closest organ to the MP as it operates, thus the influence of MP radiation on brain tissue is of particular concern, although research is still inconclusive. The present study investigated the possible effect of an EMF (1,350–1,375 megahertz (MHz)) from an MP on morphological and histopathological profiles in the mouse brain.

Material and methods

Healthy BALB/c mice were assigned to three equal groups (a control and two experimental groups, n = 10 each). Experimental mice were exposed to EMFs continuously for 72 h, those of experimental group I to a 1,350 MHz field at a specific absorption rate (SAR) of 4.0 W/kg, and group II to a 1,375 MHz field EMF at an SAR of 4.0 W/kg. Brain segmentation and histopathological analysis were applied to detect changes in the morphometric parameters of the brain lobes and identify pathological lesions, respectively.

Results

Histopathology results revealed shrinkage of pyramidal neurons, presence of mild perivascular and perineural oedema, and some vacuolation of neurons and glial cells derived from mouse great hemispheres. The lesions also included reduction of Purkinje cells, vacuolisation of neurons and glial cells, and interstitial oedema in the cerebellum.

Conclusion

MP distance of 3 cm from the cage may induce appreciable morphological changes in mouse brain structures; therefore, more comprehensive research is essential for assessment of safe distance. These pronounced effects may interfere with the results of laboratory tests on murine experimental models in veterinary or biomedical research.

Abstract

Introduction

Toll-like receptors (TLRs) play an important role in fast activation of the immune response to a variety of pathogens, including parasites. In this study, we focused on TLR2, because this receptor is one of the best known and most frequently analysed members of the TLR family. The aim of this study was to assess the effect of Trichinella spiralis on expression of TLR2 during the intestinal stage of infection.

Material and Methods

The experimental material consisted of isolates prepared from the intestines (jejunum and colon) of BALB/c mice infected with T. spiralis taken at 4, 8, and 16 days post infection.

Results

Our results based on quantitative real-time PCR showed that the mRNA level for TLR2 was statistically significantly higher in the jejuna of mice infected with T. spiralis than in this tissue of uninfected mice. In addition, the presence of TLR2 protein in the intestinal phase of trichinellosis was confirmed by a strong positive immunohistochemical reaction.

Conclusion

Our results indicate that infection with T. spiralis changes the expression of TLR2 in the small intestine of the mouse host and suggest a contribution of these receptors to the host defence mechanisms during experimental trichinellosis.

Abstract

Introduction

Differing conditions in captive breeding and in the wild have impact on the mineral profile of the pheasant carcass and its heavy metal contents. This may be an indicator of environmental contamination. The study evaluated the nutritional composition and selected macro- and trace element contents (heavy metals in particular) in usable sections of pheasant breast and thigh muscles originating from captive breeding and wild birds.

Material and Methods

The tests were performed on the breast and thigh muscles of 20 wild and 20 farm bred birds from around Lublin, Poland, with equal sex representation. The nutrient and lead, cadmium, chromium, and nickel contents were determined using inductively-coupled plasma atomic emission spectroscopy.

Results

The farmed pheasants had a higher proportion of breast muscle. The thigh muscles of all birds had a higher fat content than the breast muscles (5.1 g vs. 3.4 g per kg of natural weight). The macroelement level depended on the muscle type and bird origin. The trace element content also did and gender dependence was also evident. The wild birds contained more cadmium in the breast muscles and lead in both muscles than the farm-raised ones.

Conclusion

The high quality and usefulness of wild and farmed pheasant meat is confirmed. It has advantageous macro- and trace element contents and permissible heavy metal contents except for lead in wild birds. The heavy metal level can be a bioindicator of their environmental occurrence. In wild birds, the lead level may also reflect birdshot remnants.

Abstract

Origanum vulgare L. is an aromatic enduring herb that belongs to Lamiaceae family. The bioactive constituents of this herb, such as carvacrol and thymol possess several medicinal properties, such as antioxidant, antidiabetic, anti-inflammatory, antimicrobial, antiviral, antiparasitic, anti-neoplastic, and immune modulatory. Moreover, it is considered a standard natural, less toxic, and residue free feed additive, that is successfully used in livestock and fish. Additionally, in human, Origanum vulgare is extensively used with promising health benefits against respiratory, digestive and urinary disorders. This review casts light on description, chemical composition and structure of Origanum vulgare, as well as its therapeutic applications in human and its biological activities in ruminants and fish, data that will be possibly useful for physiologists, nutritionists and veterinarians.

Abstract

Animal health and welfare can be assessed using biochemical and haematological markers of the blood. The values of these parameters depend in part on the quantity and quality of feed ingredients, i.e. feed protein and feed additives. The aim of the study was to determine the effect of including fermented rapeseed meal (FRSM) in dry feeding system on haematological and biochemical blood parameters of sows and piglets. The experimental material comprised 30 primiparous gilts and 30 multiparous sows after their second lactation. They were randomly divided into two groups of equal size – control and experimental. The animals in control groups CG (15 gilts) and CS (15 sows) received a standard diet for pregnant or lactating sows, depending on the reproductive period. Experimental groups EG and ES were 15 gilts and 15 multiparous sows, respectively, receiving feed with a 4% share of FRSM in place of soybean meal up to 100 d of gestation. In addition, from 100 d of gestation to 7 d of lactation, the sows in these groups received feed with a 9% share of FRSM, and then again a diet with a 4% share of FRSM until the end of lactation. Blood samples were taken from 6 animals from each group in two periods: at 100 days of pregnancy (late pregnancy) and at 27 days of lactation (late lactation). Blood from piglets was taken at 27 days of age (before weaning), from two piglets from each sow (one gilt and one barrow), taking into account the average body weight in the litter. Haematological parameters: Ht, Hb and RBC were determined in whole blood. The plasma content of minerals, activity of selected enzymes and biochemical parameters of sows, gilts and piglets were determined. The diet containing fermented rapeseed meal, fed to pregnant and lactating sows, increased the level of Ht and Hb and RBC content and mineral content (phosphorus, calcium and iron) in the plasma. This effect was mainly observed in primiparous sows. The inclusion of FRSM in the diet of sows reduced the plasma content of total cholesterol and triacylglycerols in sows and piglets, as well as liver enzyme activity, particularly AST in piglets. The use of fermented rapeseed meal in sow diet resulted in better use of mineral compounds, improvement of production effects and health parameters of sow and piglet blood.

Abstract

The aim of the study was to discuss breeding of pigs of the Puławska breed, which is included in a Genetic Resources Conservation Programme, and to analyse performance parameters that are useful in domestic pig production. The Puławska breed is the oldest native breed of pig in Poland. Since 1996 it has been protected by a genetic resources conservation programme, owing to breeding traditions and the production traits characteristic of the breed. The use value of these pigs is currently at the level of maternal breeds: number of live piglets born per litter – 10.54; number of piglets reared per litter – 9.37; daily weight gains – 569 g for breeding boars and 562 g for breeding gilts; meat content – 54.6% for breeding boars and 54.9% for breeding gilts. An important element in favour of the use of this breed in domestic production of fresh pork and pork products is its meat quality parameters. The mean values for physical traits (WHC 22.42%, pH45 6.47, pH24 5.63) and chemical parameters (protein 22.70%, fat 2.65%) are characteristic of meat of normal quality. The Puławska breed can be used to produce high-quality fresh meat and meat products, including traditional and regional ones. Puławska pigs are bred and reared according to the principles of sustainable agriculture, which reduces the negative impact of pig production on the natural environment.