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Open access

Takfarinas Idres, Ali Lamara, Soraya Temim, Sofiane Boudjellaba, Jean Gagnon and Yahia Chebloune

Abstract

Introduction: Infection of goats with caprine arthritis encephalitis virus (CAEV) has been detected in variable proportions in many countries all over the world. Here, we investigated the seroprevalence of CAEV in goats raised in Algeria.

Material and Methods: A serological survey was performed on serum samples from 1,313 goats, including the local breeds (Arabia and Dwarf of Kabylia) and imported European breeds (Alpine and Saanen). Blood samples were taken from goats on 38 farms distributed across four different geographical regions of Algeria. Serum samples were tested for CAEV antibodies using a commercial ELISA.

Results: A total of 390 serum samples were found to be positive for CAEV, giving an overall seropositivity rate of 29.7% in individual animals and 97.37% (37/38) at the goat farm level.

Conclusion: These results provide the first large-scale serological evidence for the presence of CAEV infection in both the local and imported breeds of goats raised in Algeria, indicating that the virus infection is widespread.

Open access

Anna Śmiech, Wojciech Łopuszyński, Brygida Ślaska, Kamila Bulak and Agnieszka Jasik

Abstract

Introduction: Breed predisposition to cutaneous mast cell tumours (MCT) in a population of dogs in Poland affected by various skin tumours was assessed, and the distribution of MCT characteristics such as histological grading, sex, age, and location, in predisposed breeds was evaluated.

Material and Methods: The retrospective epidemiological study included 550 dogs affected by cutaneous MCTs with a reference group of 2,557 dogs diagnosed with other skin tumours.

Results: A univariable logistic regression analysis was performed to determine the odds ratios (ORs) with 95% confidence intervals. The risk of high-grade MCTs was the highest for Shar-Peis (OR: 26.394) and American Staffordshire Terriers (OR: 2.897). Boxers (OR: 6.619), Labrador Retrievers (OR: 2.630), French Bulldogs (OR: 2.050), Golden Retrievers (OR: 1.949), and American Staffordshire Terriers (OR: 2.592) were mainly affected by low-grade MCTs. The high risk of MCT was calculated to be at the age of 4–6 years for Labrador Retrievers (OR: 2.686) and 7–10 years for Boxers (OR: 2.956) and French Bulldogs (OR: 9.429). MCTs were significantly more often located on the trunk in French Bulldogs (OR: 4.680), American Staffordshire Terriers (OR: 2.520), and Labrador Retrievers (OR: 1.948). There was no statistically significant correlation between gender and the occurrence of MCTs in the breeds.

Conclusions: The breed-predicated differences in the clinical course of MCTs suggest a genetic background for the tumours.

Open access

Fei-Fei Chang, Chang-Chieh Chen, Shao-Hung Wang and Chiou-Lin Chen

Abstract

Introduction: Laryngeal swab samples collected from three waterfowl slaughterhouses in central Taiwan were cultured and suspected isolates of Riemerella anatipestifer were identified by API 20NE and 16S rDNA PCR.

Material and Methods: Serum agglutination was used for serotyping, and antimicrobial susceptibility was tested.

Results: Seventy-six R. anatipestifer isolates were detected, and the prevalences in the ducks and geese were 12.3% (46/375) and 8.0% (30/375), respectively. The positive isolation rates were 65.6% for all arriving waterfowl, 76.0% for birds in the holding area, 1.6% for defeathered carcasses, but zero for degummed carcasses. A PCR examination detected R. anatipestifer in the slaughtering area frequently. Serotype B was dominant in both duck (34.8%) and goose (46.7%) isolates, but the wide serotype distribution may very well impede vaccination development. All isolates were resistant to colistin, and 79.7% were resistant to more than three common antibiotics.

Conclusion: The results proved that most ducks had encountered antibiotic-resistant R. anatipestifer in rearing, which suggests that the bacterium circulates in asymptomatic waterfowl. It is worth noting that most waterfowl farms were found to harbour R. anatipestifer, and contaminated slaughterhouses are a major risk factor in its spread. Effective prevention and containment measures should be established there to interrupt the transmission chain of R. anatipestifer.

Open access

Lu-Lu Wang, Shi-Ying Lu, Pan Hu, Bao-Quan Fu, Yan-Song Li, Fei-Fei Zhai, Dan-Di Ju, Shi-Jun Zhang, Bing Su, Yu Zhou, Zeng-Shan Liu and Hong-Lin Ren

Abstract

Introduction: Peroxiredoxin 6 (Prdx6) is a bifunctional protein with glutathione peroxidase activity and phospholipase A2 activity. Previous studies have shown a significant positive correlation between the intracellular survival ability of Brucella and Prdx6. Here, the Prdx6 enzyme with a single activity was constructed to facilitate study of the relationship between the single function of Prdx6 and Brucella infection.

Material and Methods: The target open reading frame (ORF) DNAs of Prdx6 with a single active centre were prepared using gene splicing by overlap extension PCR (SOE-PCR), and the recombinant eukaryotic expression plasmids inserted by Prdx6 with the single activity centre were constructed and transfected into murine Raw264.7 macrophages. The glutathione peroxidase activity and phospholipase A2 activity of the constructed Prdx6 were examined.

Results: The core centres (Ser32 and Cys47) of Prdx6 were successfully mutated by changing the 94th nucleotide from T to G and the 140th nucleotide from G to C in the two enzyme activity cores, respectively. The constructed recombinant plasmids of Prdx6 with the single active centre were transfected into murine macrophages showing the expected single functional enzyme activity, which MJ33 or mercaptosuccinate inhibitors were able to inhibit.

Conclusion: The constructed mutants of Prdx6 with the single activity cores will be a benefit to further study of the biological function of Prdx6 with different enzyme activity.

Open access

Jan Jankowski, Krzysztof Kozłowski, Katarzyna Ognik, Zenon Zduńczyk, Kamil Otowski, Ewa Sawosz and Jerzy Juśkiewicz

Abstract

This study, performed on turkeys aged 1 to 98 days, aimed to investigate whether different dietary inclusion levels (20, 10, 2 mg kg−1) of copper nanoparticles (Cu-NP) as a substitute for copper sulphate (Cu-SUL) affect redox and immunological status of turkeys’ tissues. No significant differences in the final body weights of turkeys were found across the dietary treatments. A comparison of the physiological effects of Cu-NP and Cu-SUL revealed equivocal metabolic responses including decreased superoxide dismutase (SOD) activity in the liver, increased SOD and catalase activities in breast muscles, decreased total glutathione concentrations in breast muscles, and decreased plasma IgY concentrations. An analysis of the antioxidant and immune status parameters in the blood, liver and breast meat of turkeys indicates that 10 mg/kg is the optimal inclusion level of additional Cu. Both two-fold higher and five-fold lower Cu supplementation levels have a negative influence on selected parameters of the antioxidant and immune status of birds. Lower supplementation levels of Cu-NP (2 and 10 mg/kg) exert similar physiological effects to Cu-SUL, whereas higher addition of Cu-NP (20 mg/kg) may negatively affect selected redox parameters and stimulate the synthesis of the proinflammatory cytokine IL-6. The results of the present study indicate that further research is needed to establish the actual dietary requirements for Cu in turkeys and the efficacy of nanoparticles as a new additional Cu source in turkey nutrition.

Open access

Sylwia Nisztuk-Pacek, Brygida Ślaska, Ludmiła Grzybowska-Szatkowska and Marek Babicz

Abstract

The aim of the study was to describe the mechanism of mitochondrial DNA inheritance in a group of farmed raccoon dogs. The study involved 354 individuals. Whole peripheral blood was the research material. DNA was isolated and PCR was performed for two fragments of mitochondrial genes: COX1 (cytochrome oxidase subunit 1 gene) and COX2 (cytochrome oxidase subunit 2 gene). The PCR products were sequenced and subjected to bioinformatics analyses. Three mitochondrial haplotypes were identified in the COX1 gene fragment and two in the COX2 gene fragment. The analysis of mtDNA inheritance in the paternal line confirmed the three cases of paternal mtDNA inheritance, i.e. the so-called “paternal leakage” in the analysed population. In two families, all offspring inherited paternal mitochondrial DNA, whereas in one family one descendant inherited paternal mtDNA and another one inherited maternal mtDNA. The lineage data indicated that one female which inherited maternal mitochondrial DNA transferred it onto the next generation. To sum up, the results of the study for the first time demonstrated the phenomenon of “paternal leakage” in farmed raccoon dogs, which facilitated description of mitochondrial DNA inheritance in the paternal line.

Open access

Saied Jafari, Mahdi Ebrahimi, Yong M. Goh, Mohamed A. Rajion, Mohamed F. Jahromi and Wisam S. Al-Jumaili

Abstract

A wide range of plant secondary metabolites (PSM) have been shown to have the potential to modulate the fermentation process in the rumen. The use of plants and plant extracts as natural feed additives has become an interesting topic not only among nutritionists but also other scientists. Although a large number of phytochemicals (e.g. saponins, tannins and essential oils) have recently been investigated for their methane (CH4) reduction potential, there have not yet been major breakthroughs that could be applied in practice. However, the effectiveness of these PSM depends on the source, type and the level of their presence in plant products. The aim of the present review was to assess ruminal CH4 emission through a comparison of integrating related studies from published papers, which described various levels of different PSM sources being added to ruminant feed. Apart from CH4, other related rumen fermentation parameters were also included in this review.

Open access

Anna Czech, Martyna Kiesz, Adrian Kiesz, Tomasz Próchniak, Paweł Różański and Kamila Klimiuk

Abstract

The purpose of the study was to determine whether the type of use, age and gender of Małopolski horses affect the level of selected haematological and biochemical parameters of their blood and whether there is an interaction between these factors. The research was carried out on 30 horses of the Małopolski breed, which were divided according to gender (18 mares and 12 stallions), age (2–6 years, 7–9 years and 10–16 years) and use (recreational vs. sport). To sum up, the gender of horses significantly affects erythrocyte indices, as evidenced by their significantly higher values in the stallions as compared to the mares, as well as by the interactions between gender and type of use and between the gender and age of the horse. The leukocyte and neutrophil counts increase with the age of horses, and the interaction between age and type of use indicates that the leukocyte and neutrophil counts in training horses is closely linked to their age. systematic physical exercise in sport horses increases leukocyte and lymphocyte counts and contributes to osteogenesis (increase in alp activity and plasma content of calcium and phosphorus), which has a beneficial effect on their health. The correlations obtained may improve breeders’ awareness of the effect of various factors, such as age, gender or type of use, on blood indices in horses and can be helpful in evaluating the health of Małopolski horses.

Open access

Mohamed Soliman El-Kholy, Zenat Abd El-Gawad Ibrahim, Mohamed Mamdoh El-Mekkawy and Mahmoud Alagawany

Abstract

A total of 450 fertile Japanese quail eggs were used to determine the impacts of in ovo administration of water-soluble vitamins (C, B6 and B12) on the growth performance, carcass traits, hematological and biochemical blood parameters as well as the immune response of Japanese quails. On the 7th day of incubation, the eggs were allocated to five groups: un-injected, 0.1 ml/egg saline, 1 mg/egg vitamin C, 150 µg/egg vitamin B6 and 20 µg/egg vitamin B12. The percentage of early embryonic mortality was increased (P≤0.001) in all treated groups versus the control group. Chicks that hatched from eggs injected with 1 mg/egg vitamin C exhibited a significantly greater (P≤0.05) live body weight (LBW) than those from the control and saline groups. During 0–2 weeks of age, the chicks hatched from eggs injected with vitamins displayed better feed conversion than the positive or negative controls. In ovo injection of vitamins had no significant effect on all carcass traits. In ovo injection with vitamins C, B6 and B12 increased plasma total protein and its fractions compared with the control. Plasma levels of total lipids and cholesterol were decreased in chicks hatched from eggs injected with 1 mg/egg vitamin C, 150 µg/egg vitamin B6 or 20 µg/egg vitamin B12 compared with those hatched from control eggs. Plasma T3 and T4 were increased in chicks hatched from eggs injected with vitamin C, vitamin B6 and vitamin B12. The relative weights of the bursa of Fabricius and thymus were significantly (P=0.002 or 0.003) increased in the birds hatched from eggs injected with vitamins compared with those in the control or saline group. Thus, in ovo injection of vitamins C, B6 and B12 improved the blood profile and immune response of Japanese quail.

Open access

Nina Volkmann, Nicole Kemper and Anke Römer

Abstract

The objective of the present study was to investigate possible long-term effects of calf and heifer feeding intensity on first-lactation milk yield and lifetime efficiency (milk per day of life). Detailed records from a total number of 2,252 female German Holstein calves from one commercial farm were obtained from birth to culling. Data regarding all information about calf’s birth, rearing time until first insemination, first calving, first-lactation yield and lifetime performance were collected over a 12-year period. This large data volume was merged, handled, checked for plausibility, classified and evaluated. Analyses revealed that body weight at an age of six months was significantly influenced by the average daily gain in the first two weeks of life (P<0.0001) and by the duration of treatment for respiratory diseases (P=0.0080). Moreover, first-lactation yield was affected by average daily gain in the whole first year of life (P=0.0013) and particularly in the period of month nine to twelve (P=0.00187). Lifetime efficiency was significantly influenced by body weight at first insemination (P=0.0051), average milk yield (P<0.0001) and reason for culling (P<0.0001). The results of this long-term study confirm that growth is important in general, but as shown by the negative correlation between average daily gain from month nine to twelve and the first lactation milk yield, nutrient intake (energy and protein) should be adapted to enable a controlled growth especially at certain periods of life. After six months of age, daily gain has to be controlled to avoid fat accumulation for a healthy and effective start of lactation. In addition, this analysis revealed that after passing first lactation, particularly health and fertility are the keys for a long efficient lifetime of dairy cows.