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Open access

Quan Liang

Abstract

Hepatitis C virus (HCV) is the main pathogen causing chronic hepatitis and primary liver cancer. Various viral proteins and host cell molecules are involved in the HCV cell entry, but the mechanism of infection has not been completely elucidated. The transferrin receptor can act as a receptor for many viruses during cell entry. The transferrin receptor is not only closely related to HCV-induced iron metabolism disorders but also mediates the fusion of HCV with the host cell membrane as a specific receptor for CD81-dependent viral adhesion.

Open access

Guoxiu Lu

Abstract

Sepsis is a systemic inflammatory response caused by infection and a critical illness in pediatrics. This disease is the leading cause of death in infants and children worldwide. An early, appropriate, and adequate anti-infective treatment can effectively prevent disease progression and improve the survival rate of children. However, antimicrobial drug abuse, increased drug-resistant bacteria, and lack of epidemiological data have hampered the effective and rational anti-infective treatment of patients with sepsis and enhancement of the success rate of rescue, especially for children. This article briefly reviews the recent advances in anti-infective treatment for sepsis in children at home and abroad based on sepsis definition, pathogen distribution and drug resistance, infection source control, and rational anti-infection. The results provide a foundation for clinical treatment of sepsis.

Open access

Li Han

Abstract

The harms of seasonal flu and global pandemic influenza have generally attracted attention. However, the currently administered influenza drugs and flu vaccines have certain limitations. Since the discovery of the small interfering RNA (siRNA) and its mediated RNA interference process, this molecule has been widely used in the study of anti-influenza viral infections because of its high specificity and strong selectivity. The results provided new concepts for the prevention and treatment of influenza virus. However, the siRNA still faces an enormous challenge despite extensive studies on this molecule. The research progress of siRNA in anti-influenza viral infection was reviewed in this study.

Open access

Xiaoming Gu

Abstract

Objective

The objective of this study was to understand the pathological mechanism and therapeutic progress in the study of urinary tract infections to provide references for clinical diagnosis and identification and development of therapeutic drugs.

Methods

We summarized the types, pathological mechanisms, and therapeutic drugs for urinary tract infections on the basis of recent publications on these infections, both domestic and abroad.

Results and conclusions

Urinary tract infection is mainly caused by pathogenic bacterial infection and treated by targeting bacterial adhesion, bacterial toxin, protease, urease, and siderophores, as well as using pili as vaccines and small-molecule drugs. Vaccines that target bacterial adhesion can block well the interaction between pathogens and the body, thereby reducing the incidence of urinary tract infections. The clinical efficacy of vaccines targeting bacterial toxins and proteases needs further evaluation. Vaccines targeting iron carriers retard disease progression and attenuate bacterial colonization. Urease-targeted small-molecule drugs exhibit certain curative effects and serious side effects. Small pili-targeted drugs can prevent and treat urinary tract infections by blocking the colonization and invasion of pathogens in animal models of urinary tract infections on the bladder. Adhesive FimH antibodies have entered Phase I clinical trials. However, pilicides, mannosides, and vaccines that target pili, iron carriers, and other virulence factors are still in the experimental or preclinical stages of research.

Open access

Hua Feng

Abstract

Helicobacter pylori (Hp) is one of the most common human pathogens. The infection caused by this bacterium is closely related to various clinical diseases. However, the eradication rate of conventional quadruple therapy has decreased, but the recurrence rate of infections has increased. The oral cavity is another major storage of Hp in addition to the stomach, and a certain homology exists between Hp in the oral cavity and Hp in the stomach. Periodontal treatment has a certain role in the killing of oral Hp, which can increase the eradication rate and reduce the recurrence rate of Hp in the stomach. This article summarizes the influence of oral Hp on the eradication rate and recurrence rate of gastric Hp.

Open access

Tong Wang

Abstract

Acute lung injury (ALI)/acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) is an acute progressive respiratory failure caused by severe infection, trauma, shock, poisoning, inhaled harmful gas, acute pancreatitis, and pathological obstetrics. ALI and ARDS demonstrate similar pathophysiological changes. The severe stage of ALI is defined as ARDS. At present, a significant progress has been achieved in the study of the pathogenesis and pathophysiology of ALI/ARDS. Whether or not ALI/ARDS patients can recover depends on the degree of lung injury, extra-pulmonary organ damage, original primary disease of a patient, and adequacy in supportive care. Conservative infusion strategies and protective lung ventilation reduce ARDS disability and mortality. In this study, the pathogenesis of ALI/ARDS, lung injury, molecular mechanisms of lung repair, and conservative infusion strategies and pulmonary protective ventilation are reviewed comprehensively.

Open access

Mengjiao Hu and Zhenfei Wang

Abstract

Helicobacter pylori is a pathogenic bacterium with strong pathogenicity, which can induce chronic gastritis and peptic ulcer in addition to causing gastric mucosal atrophy and intestinal metaplasia after longterm infection. It is even associated closely with the occurrence of gastric cancer and mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue lymphoma. Recently, the incidence of H.pylori-associated gastritis has increased rapidly worldwide, especially in China. The prevention and treatment of H. pylori infection has become an urgent issue to be resolved by the medical community. Traditional Chinese medicine and the combination of traditional Chinese medicine and Western medicine have recently shown unique advantages in the treatment of H.pylori–associated gastritis. The progress in this area is summarized in this review.

Open access

Jin Zhang

Abstract

Brucellosis is one of the most prevalent zoonoses in the world. Incidence of the disease has increased significantly in recent years and has seriously affected the health of human beings and the development of animal husbandry. The pathogenesis of brucellosis remains unclear. Current studies suggest that this disease may be related to changes in natural killer cells, dendritic cells, and macrophages in immune cell subsets. Brucellosis may be also related to T helper (Th) 1 cell/Th2 cell imbalance in the CD4+ T cell subset, immunoregulation of regulatory T cells and Th17 cells, and the mechanism of action of CD8+ T cell. This paper aims to review the research progress on these inherent immune cells, the CD4+ T cell subset, and CD8+ T cells in Brucella infection.

Open access

Feng Li, Hao Qin, Xing Zhi, Wang Zhenfei and Wang Ziwei

Abstract

Objective

The objective of this study was to discuss the effect of double perfusion cannula accompanied with low negative pressure drainage in the treatment of complexity of abdominopelvic and perineal infections.

Methods

The technology of the double perfusion cannula accompanied with low negative pressure drainage was used to treat complexity of abdominopelvic and perineal infections.

Results

Double perfusion cannula accompanied with low negative pressure drainage can be applied to the treatment of complexity of abdominopelvic and perineal infections. It has an obvious effect on infection control and reduces recovery time.

Conclusion

Double perfusion cannula accompanied with low negative pressure drainage has a good effect on complexity of abdominopelvic and perineal infections; it can be used in wider surgical fields to prevent infections.

Open access

Muyao Zhang, Xing Wei and Zhenfei Wang

Abstract

Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is the sixth most common malignancy worldwide and the third most common cause of death from cancer, after lung and stomach cancer. Hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection is closely related to HCC and is a major cause of HCC. HBV is a lysogenic virus of the hepadnavirus family. Its genome presents a slack, ring-like, double-chain structure, containing four open reading frames. The X region encodes the product HBV X protein (HBx), which is a multifunctional regulatory protein that plays an important role in intracellular signal transduction, viral genome replication and transcription, cell proliferation and apoptosis, cell cycle progression, protein degradation, and genetic stability of hepatocytes. This article summarizes the recent research on the mechanism of promotion of initiation and progression of HCC by HBx protein.