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N. Yu. Rubtsova and R. A. Heckmann

Summary

New morphometric data, including details of the copulatory system and attachment structures, as well as inner organs are provided for Ancyrocephalus paradoxus Creplin, 1839. Scanning electron microscopy reveals new information of the body shape, position of the cephalic organs’ openings, and structure of anchors, as well as differences in the in anchors’ structure in adults and sub-adults of A. paradoxus. Energy dispersive analysis for X-ray was conducted for the first time for anchors in Monogenea and revealed structural differences between different parts of the anchors in two age groups.

Open access

D. Nugaraitė, V. Mažeika and A. Paulauskas

Summary

This study presents the helminthological data on three mustelid species with overlapping ecological niches in Lithuania. In general, 14 helminth species or higher taxa were reported from all mustelids: Isthmiophora melis, Strigea strigis metacercariae, Pseudamphistomum truncatum, Alaria alata mesocercariae, Phyllodistomum folium, Opisthorchis felineus, Metametorchis skrjabini, Mesocestoides sp., Taenia martis, Aonchotheca putorii, Crenosoma schachmatovae, Eucoleus aerophilus, Molineus patens, and Nematoda g. sp. The largest number of helminths was detected in M. putorius (11) and N. vison (10) from wetlands; 7 helminths were detected in M. putorius from forests, and 8 in N. vison and 4 in L. lutra from water bodies. Habitat-related differences were found in the abundance and prevalence of E. aerophilus in M. putorius. M. putorius has higher indices of infection by I. melis, S. strigis metacercariae, and E. aerophilus compared to N. vison in wetlands. Differences in the abundance and prevalence of P. truncatum among N. vison and L. lutra in water bodies have been observed. Helminths detected in N. vison in the present study are native European parasites.

Open access

V. Sabūnas, J. Radzijevskaja, P. Sakalauskas and A. Paulauskas

Summary

Over the past decade, increasing numbers of autochthonous cases of heartworm infection have been reported in the countries of Eastern Europe where previously only imported cases were described. In this report we have described the first clinical case of Dirofilaria immitis infection in an imported dog in Lithuania.

In 2018, a 5-year-old male Spanish greyhound (Spanish galgo) was imported to Lithuania from southern Spain and referred to a small animal veterinary clinic in Vilnius for wellness screening. Circulating microfilariae and female antigens of D. immitis were detected using the Knott’s test and SNAP 4Dx Plus Test (IDEXX Laboratories, Portland, USA). The diagnosis was confirmed using molecular analysis. Treatment according to the guidelines recommended by the American Heartworm Society was applied. This is the first confirmed report of canine heartworm infection in an imported dog in Lithuania. Heartworm-infected dogs transported to North-Eastern Europe from endemic areas could act as microfilarial reservoirs for the local mosquito population, which could increase the risk of spreading the disease.

Open access

Marta Špakulová

Abstract

The respectable community of parasitologists aimed at the broad-spectral research of acanthocephalan parasites met at the 9th Acanthocephalan Workshop. The workshop took place in the beautiful surroundings of the High Tatras, Slovakia in the Congress Centre Academia, Stará Lesná near Tatranská Lomnica on September 9 - 13th. This special event was hosted by the Slovak Society for Parasitology, the Institute of Parasitology of the Slovak Academy of Sciences, Košice, Slovakia, and the Czech University of Life Sciences Prague, Czech Republic. It consisted of nearly three dozen lectures presented by distinguished acanthocephalan specialists who came from 13 countries and five continents. Vibrant discussions and creating new plans for future collaborations were accompanied by local mountain touring that offered the venue richly endowed with nature, deep forests and beautiful mountains. The contributions were addressed to resolve current systematic, taxonomic, biological, behavioural, ecological, and related topics. Presented results showed the most recent progressive developments comparable with all the other parasitic worm groups. The 10th Acanthocephalan Workshop will be hosted by Dr. Marie-Jeanne Perrot-Minnot, Université de Bourgogne Franche-Comté, Dijon, Bourgogne, France, in 2022.

Open access

C. Hu, X. G. Xia, X. M. Han, Y. F. Chen, Y. Qiao, D. H. Liu and S. L. Li

Abstract

To study the effect of fertilization on soil nematode communities in a paddy-upland rotation system, an ongoing thirty-three years long-term fertilizer experiment is conducted which includes seven treatments; an unfertilized treatment (control), nitrogen (N), phosphorus (P), potassium (K) fertilizer treatments (N, NP, NPK) and organic manure (M) combined with chemical fertilizer treatments (MN, MNP, and MNPK). The soil nematode community structure and crop yields were determined in 2012 and 2013. Overall total nematode abundance was increased by an incremental nutrient input both in the rice and wheat fields. Total number of nematode was 1.25 - 2.37 times greater in the rice field and was 1.08 - 2.97 times greater in wheat field in the fertilization treatments than in the unfertilized treatment. Soil free-living nematode abundances was significantly (P < 0.001) increased in organic manure combined with chemical fertilizer treatments in rice field. Fungi-feeders and plant-feeding nematodes abundances were not significantly different among treatments in rice and wheat fields. Omnivorous and predatory nematodes were the most dominant groups in the present study. Omnivores, predators and Prodorylaimus abundances were significantly (P < 0.05) higher in organic manure combined with NPK fertilizer treatments than in chemical fertilizer alone and unfertilized treatments both in rice and wheat fields. Stepwise regressions revealed that soil free-living nematodes were significant predictors of rice grain yields (R2 = 0.56, P < 0.001) and omnivorous and predatory nematodes were significant predictors of the wheat grain yield (R2 = 0.89, P < 0.001). Therefore, long-term application of organic manure combined with chemical fertilizer could increase nematode abundances and crop yields. Organic manure combined with chemical fertilizer application was recommended in agricultural ecosystem.

Open access

K. Apiwong, Ch. Wongsawad and P. Butboonchoo

Abstract

Cyprinoid fish in Chiang Mai province has been reported the presence of a large number of metacercariae, particularly the metacercariae of Haplorchoides and those not identified to species. This study aims to investigate morphological and molecular characteristic of the minute intestinal fluke H. mehrai metacercariae in two cyprinoid fish species from Chom Thong district, Chiang Mai province, Thailand: the Tinfoil barb (Barbonymus schwanenfeldii) and the White eye barb (Cyclocheilichthys repasson). A total of 180 fish (90 from B. schwanenfeldii and 90 from C. repasson) were collected over three seasons: cool, hot and the rainy season (December 2015 to August 2016). Fish were examined for H. mehrai metacercariae infection, including areas such as muscle and the inner side of body scales, by using a light microscope. The prevalence of H. mehrai metacercariae in B. schwanenfeldii and C. repasson was 73.33 % and 100 % respectively. Haplorchoides metacercariae were identified as H. mehrai based on the morphological characteristics; the position of the acetabulum and the number and arrangement of the acetabular spines. Phylogenetic analysis based on Cytochrome c Oxidase subunit I (COI) gene showed that H. mehrai metacercariae from B. schwanenfeldii and C. repasson were the same species as the adult stage of H. mehrai from Hemibagrus nemurus and Mystus multiradiatus. Both morphological and molecular characteristic could indicate that Haplorchoides metacercariae originated from this study were H. mehrai. Furthermore, it is a new record of the minute intestinal fluke Haplorchoides mehrai in Chiang Mai Province

Open access

D. Chagas De Souza, L. Lima Correa and M. Tavares-Dias

Abstract

The present study investigated the occurrence of metacercariae of Ithyoclinostomum dimorphum in Hoplias malabaricus in the basin of the São Francisco River in the state of Minas Gerais (Brazil). Twenty-nine fish were examined in June 2012 during a survey of fish and parasitic fauna. Of the fish examined, 34.5 % had infected eyes, intestine and musculature, with a mean intensity of 1.1 and an abundance of 0.4 per fish. The prevalence in the intestine was 31.0 %, with mean intensity of 1.1 and mean abundance of 0.3. In the eyes, the prevalence was 3.4 %, with a mean intensity of 1.0 and mean abundance of 1.0. The metacercaria found in the right eyeball was lodged between the cornea and iris. The low parasitism did not affect the condition factor (Kn) of the parasitized fish. This was the first report of I. dimorphum in the eyes of Hoplias malabaricus, a secondary intermediate host for this endoparasite.

Open access

A. Dudlová, P. Juriš, P. Jarčuška, Z. Vasilková, V. Vargová, M. Sumková and V. Krčméry

Abstract

Helminth infections caused by Enterobius vermicularis have a cosmopolitan character and most often affect the paediatric pre-school and school age population. The presented study was conducted to determine the prevalence of E. vermicularis in the analyzed population of children in the Eastern Slovakia. The Graham’s scotch tape method was used to investigate the presence of Enterobius vermicularis eggs in 390 specimens. The analyzed set consisted of 218 girls and 172 boys, divided by age into three groups - aged from 5 months to 2 years, aged from 3 to 6 years, and aged from 7 to 15 years. Investigation of perianal scotch tapes of children for the presence of E. vermicularis eggs revealed the prevalence of E. vermicularis was P = 3.59 %. Depending on the incidence of E. vermicularis infection, we detected no statistically signifi cant difference (p> 0.05). The prevalence of E. vermicularis in boys was P = 4.07 %, and in girls P = 3.21 %. The highest prevalence of E. vermicularis was recorded in the group of children aged from 3 to 6 years (P = 5.03 %). Most of the samples were positive at age 4 and 5. The lowest prevalence was in the group of children aged from 5 months to 2 years (P = 0.97 %), and the prevalence of E. vermicularis in the group of children aged from 7 to 15 was P = 3.91 %. The difference in the incidence of E. vermicularis infection among different age groups of children was not statistically significant (p> 0.05). Enterobius vermicularis nematode infection and enterobiasis currently represents a major public health problem in Slovakia. At the present its occurrence is the most frequent in the paediatric population. Therefore it is important to introduce a targeted hygienic-epidemiological measure in children’s collectives, what also should include proper and effective diagnostics and frequent recurrent therapy.

Open access

E. F. Fernandes De Carvalho, A. Ferreira Da Silva-Neta, C. De Sousa Silva, C. R. De Oliveira, J. Da Cunha Xavier Nunes, T. Gonçalves De Souza and R. W. Ávila

Abstract

Snakes have diverse feeding and living habits, being exposed to a variety of endoparasite communities. However, more studies are still necessary to document these relationships. We examined 18 specimens of the cat-eyed snake Leptodeira annulata from a semi-arid region in Northeast Brazil. Eight taxa of parasites were found, with higher prevalence of cystacanths (Acanthocephala). Five nematode species (Hexametra boddaertii, Oswaldocruzia sp., Oxyascaris sp., Physaloptera sp. and Raillietnema spectans) and the pentastome Raillietiella furcocerca represent a new parasitism record for the host studied. Our results also showed that L. annulata could act as paratenic host for acanthocephalans. These results contribute to the knowledge of the helminth fauna of L. annulata.