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A Case of Papular-purpuric “Gloves and Socks” Syndrome Caused by Mycoplasma pneumoniae

Abstract

We present a case of “gloves and socks” syndrome associated with Mycoplasma pneumoniae infection in a 6-year-old child hospitalized for febrile syndrome associated with monomorphic purpuric papular eruption localized on the distal part of extremities, in a “gloves and socks” pattern. Clinical diagnosis was confirmed by positivity of specific IgM against Mycoplasma pneumoniae. Favorable outcome was obtained by administration of oral clarithromycin.

Open access
Coronary Artery Aneurysms Due to Kawasaki Disease – a Rare Cause of Acute Myocardial Infarction

Abstract

Kawasaki disease, also known as Kawasaki syndrome or mucocutaneous lymph node syndrome, is a pathology that causes inflammation in the walls of medium-sized arteries, with symptoms such as fever, lymphadenopathy, rash, and erythema of the eyes, lips, nose, palms, and feet. The cause is unknown, although clinical features strongly suggest an infectious etiology. We present the case of a 53-year-old woman, known with Kawasaki disease since childhood, with different associated pathologies, who presented with acute inferior ST elevation myocardial infarction.

Open access
Endovascular Treatment for Bilateral Carotid Stenosis: a Case Report

Abstract

Carotid artery stenosis is usually a consequence of thromboembolism or atheroembolism, or it can be secondary to a low-velocity status in the carotid circulation. This disease can also represent an important cause of stroke, being responsible for 7% of all stroke cases. Endovascular techniques were recently proposed as alternative interventions for patients with high risk for endarterectomy. We present the case of a 70-year-old patient, accusing headache, vertigo, and fatigue. Angiography indicated bilateral carotid artery stenosis. Interventional surgery and angioplasty were performed, crossing the stenotic lesions of the left internal carotid artery, followed by the implantation of a Carotid WALLSTENT endoprosthesis. Evolution of the patient was favorable after the endovascular intervention, with significant improvement of the symptoms caused by bilateral carotid stenosis. As a conclusion, decision-making must be modulated in each patient, according to the patient’s anatomy and comorbidities, and the experience of the team performing the procedure.

Open access
Epicardial Fat and Coronary Vulnerability
Open access
A Genomic Approach to Characterize the Vulnerable Patient – a Clinical Update

Abstract

Atherosclerosis is the elemental precondition for any cardiovascular disease and the predominant cause of ischemic heart disease that often leads to myocardial infarction. Systemic risk factors play an important role in the starting and progression of atherosclerosis. The complexity of the disease is caused by its multifactorial origin. Besides the traditional risk factors, genetic predisposition is also a strong risk factor. Many studies have intensively researched cardioprotective drugs, which can relieve myocardial ischemia and reperfusion injury, thereby reducing infarct size. A better understanding of abnormal epigenetic pathways in the myocardial pathology may result in new treatment options. Individualized therapy based on genome sequencing is important for an effective future medical treatment. Studies based on multiomics help to better understand the pathophysiological mechanism of several diseases at a molecular level. Epigenomic, transcriptomic, proteomic, and metabolomic research may be essential in detecting the pathological phenotype of myocardial ischemia and ischemic heart failure.

Open access
Immune Thrombocytopenia in an Adolescent with Hashimoto’s Thyroiditis – Case Report

Abstract

Introduction: In childhood, thrombocytopenia caused by transient antibody-mediated thrombocyte destruction is most frequently diagnosed as immune thrombocytopenic purpura (ITP). We report the case of a girl with ITP associated with autoimmune thyroiditis.

Case presentation: A 11-year-old female patient with Hashimoto’s thyroiditis presented with clinical signs of petechiae and ecchymoses on the extremities. Laboratory tests showed remarkable thrombocytopenia with a platelet count of 44,500/μL, hence she was referred to a hematologic consultation. The peripheral blood smear showed normal size platelets in very low range. The bone marrow examination exposed hyperplasia of the megakaryocyte series with outwardly morphologic abnormalities. The patient was diagnosed with ITP, and her first-line treatment was pulsed steroid and immunoglobulin therapy. The thrombocytopenia was refractory to these first-line medications. After 6 months of corticotherapy and a period of severe menorrhagia, azathioprine immunosupression was initiated as a second-line treatment. Her platelet count rapidly increased, and the evolution was good, without bleeding complications.

Conclusion: In case of a medical history of autoimmune diseases and treatment-resistant ITP, attention must be focused on detecting coexisting autoimmune diseases and adjusting the treatment in accordance with the chronic evolution of the disease.

Open access
Noninvasive Functional Characterization of Coronary Plaques by Coronary Computed Tomography – Beyond the Morphology of Vulnerable Plaques

Abstract

Coronary computed tomography angiography (CCTA) is a reliable screening method of patients with coronary artery disease (CAD). CCTA is capable to assess both coronary stenosis and plaque morphology, but does not provide hemodynamic characterization of the coronary lesions. However, the severity of coronary stenosis does not always reflect the hemodynamic significance of the plaque. Invasive fractional flow reserve (FFR) is considered the gold standard for the functional evaluation of a potential ischemia-causing stenosis. FFR derived from CCTA (FFR-CT) is a new noninvasive diagnostic tool, using a typically acquired CCTA, without the need for any further radiation or medication. Additional functional assessment of the coronary lesions permits a more complex characterization of CAD patients. Based on the FFR-CT examination, patients who need invasive coronary intervention can be selected more precisely, and a more personalized and optimized treatment can be provided.

Open access
Noninvasive Imaging Biomarkers of Vulnerable Coronary Plaques – a Clinical Update

Abstract

Atherosclerosis is a slow, progressive disease, its most common manifestation and most severe consequence being coronary artery disease, one of the main causes of mortality and morbidity worldwide. The vast majority of cardiovascular deaths are caused by complications of atherosclerosis, most often being represented by the rupture of an unstable coronary plaque, regularly triggered by inflammation. A vulnerable plaque is characterized by a large, lipid-rich necrotic core, a thin fibrous cap with macrophage infiltration, and the presence of multiple specific biomarkers such as positive remodeling, irregular calcifications, and low attenuation visible with coronary computed tomography angiography (CCTA). Identifying biomarkers that could predict the risk of plaque rupture with high accuracy would be a significant advance in predicting acute cardiac events in asymptomatic patients, furthermore guiding treatment of patients with this disease. The main indication of noninvasive imaging is to identify patients at risk based on the presence or absence of symptoms that can be related to myocardial ischemia. The diagnostic objective is to confirm or to exclude the presence of coronary plaques. Coronary imaging in asymptomatic individuals is used to estimate the risk of future cardiac events through the identification of non-obstructive high-risk plaques. The possibility to monitor the evolution of vulnerable plaques via noninvasive imaging techniques, prior to the occurrence of an acute clinical event, is the main goal in plaque imaging. This manuscript will be focusing on recent advances of noninvasive imaging of vulnerable coronary plaques.

Open access
An Overview of Disease Burden, Mechanism, Traditional and Non-traditional Management of Type 2 Diabetes

Abstract

Diabetes is a major global health problem leading to high morbidity, mortality, and economic burden. Diabetes is connected to complex social, environmental, and behavioral factors and requires multisectoral evidence-based strategies to reduce its incidence and prevalence. Here we attempt to connect existing diabetes data with the underlying mechanism of the disease, while touching disease processes and traditional management approaches for diabetes and its complications. The major objective of this manuscript is to examine the effect of nontraditional treatment modalities, e.g. non-pharmaceutical interventions, supplements, alternative and integrative therapies etc., on diabetes. We performed an extensive literature search and review using electronic databases (PubMed and Google Scholar) to examine recent and historical diabetes statistics, the underlying mechanism of the disease, traditional treatments, remission possibility, and finally, the role of alternative therapies and supplements in its management. We found that there is no sufficient evidence to make most of the alternative therapies the first line of management and prevention approach for diabetes. Long-term and large-scale studies are needed to evaluate the safety and efficacy of alternative medicine. We feel that this review could urge other health researchers to plan comprehensive studies to examine the role of alternative or newly-identified therapies in diabetes. Also, this information can be useful for diverse health professionals and policymakers in developing and implementing evidence-based strategies.

Open access
Predictors of Left Ventricular Remodeling Post Acute Myocardial Infarction. Protocol for a Clinical Study

Abstract

Heart failure is a clinical syndrome that appears as a consequence of a structural disease, and the most common cause of left ventricular systolic dysfunction results from myocardial ischemia. Cardiac remodeling and neuroendocrine activation are the major compensatory mechanisms in heart failure. The main objective of the study is to identify the association between serum biomarkers illustrating the extent of myocardial necrosis (highly sensitive troponin as-says), left ventricular dysfunction (NT-proBNP), and systemic inflammatory response (illustrated via serum levels of hsCRP and interleukins) during the acute phase of a myocardial infarction, and the left ventricular remodeling process at 6 months following the acute event, quantified via speckle tracking echocardiography. The study will include 400 patients diagnosed with acute myocardial infarction without signs and symptoms of heart failure at the time of enrollment that will undergo a complex clinical examination and speckle tracking echocardiography. Serum samples from the peripheral blood will be collected in order to determine the inflammatory serum biomarkers. After 6 months, patients will be divided into 2 groups according to the development of ventricular remodeling, quantified by speckle tracking echocardiography: group 1 will consist of patients with a remodeling index lower than 15%, and group 2 will consist of patients with a remodeling index higher than 15%. All clinical and imaging data obtained at the baseline will be compared between these two groups in order to determine the features associated with a higher risk of deleterious ventricular remodeling and heart failure.

Open access