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Open access

Anca Chiriac, Piotr Brzezinski, Meda Bradeanu, Adrian Năznean, Cristian Podoleanu and Simona Stolnicu

Abstract

Newborns are more likely to develop bruises due to mechanical trauma during birth. Establishing the correct diagnosis in newborns presenting with different skin lesions is not an easy task, and besides the well-known pathology, one must not forget simple posttraumatic injuries. We present three cases that raised questions before establishing that the lesions had been induced by simple mechanical trauma during birth. Trauma-induced skin lesions in newborns may represent an overlooked problem. The three cases presented here are meant to draw attention to the possibility of trauma-induced lesions in newborns, which require only close follow-up and surveillance instead of exhaustive clinical and laboratory investigations, which are inevitably accompanied by anxiety.

Open access

Pál Maurovich-Horvat, Milán Vecsey-Nagy, Judit Simon, Bálint Szilveszter, Júlia Karády, Ádám Jermendy and Béla Merkely

Abstract

Transcatheter aortic valve implantation (TAVI) is an effective treatment option for patients suffering from symptomatic, severe aortic valve stenosis. Previously, only patients with prohibitive or high surgical risk were TAVI candidates; however, current guidelines already recommend TAVI as a treatment alternative for patients with intermediate surgical risk. Multidetector computed tomography (MDCT) has gained great importance in the periprocedural assessment of patients who undergo TAVI. Due to the three-dimensional image visualization, MDCT allows the evaluation of anatomical structures in a more comprehensive manner compared to echocardiography, the traditional tool used in TAVI patient work-up. By providing accurate measurements of the aortic root, MDCT helps to avoid potential patient-prosthesis mismatch throughout transcatheter valve sizing. Moreover, MDCT is also a feasible tool for access route evaluation and to determine the optimal projection angles for the TAVI procedure. Although the routine MDCT follow-up of patients is currently not recommended in clinical practice, if performed, it could provide invaluable information about valve integrity and asymptomatic leaflet thrombosis. Post-procedural MDCT can provide details about the position of the prosthesis and complications such as leaflet-thrombosis, aortic regurgitation, coronary occlusion, and other vascular complications that can represent major cardiac emergencies. The aim of the current review is to overview the role of MDCT in the pre- and post-procedural assessment of TAVI patients. In the first part, the article presents the role of pre-TAVI imaging in the complex anatomical assessment of the aortic valve and the selection of the most appropriate device. The second part of the review describes the role of MDCT in patients who underwent TAVI to assess potential complications, some of them leading to a major cardiovascular emergency.

Open access

Balázs Oltean-Péter, István Kovács, Monica Chițu and Imre Benedek

Abstract

Atherosclerosis is a systemic disease that most often affects the carotid arteries. Being usually asymptomatic in its early stages, it is diagnosed only in advanced stages, when treatment is more difficult and prognosis is poor. Carotid ultrasound (US) is the most commonly used method for diagnosing carotid artery disease and represents a proper method for screening in patients with cardiovascular (CV) risk factors. This paper shows the methodology and necessity of carotid imaging methods in patients at high risk of developing atherosclerotic lesions. We also review the findings that underline the need of carotid screening in patients with ischemic heart disease or with ischemic arteriopathy, showing that the carotid arteries are like ‘mirrors’ of the arterial system, which need to be assessed in every patient with CV risk factors, regardless of the presence or absence of symptoms.

Open access

Aura-Gabriela Casu

Abstract

Sudden cardiac death in children is one of the most devastating conditions that can be encountered in acute cardiac care. Intracardiac device therapy, providing prompt and effective treatment in malignant ventricular arrhythmia or in severe conduction abnormalities, is a promising tool to reduce the incidence of this fatal condition. However, the implementation of device-based therapy in the pediatric population is currently limited by the lack of clinical studies on large number of subjects. As a result, indications for device therapy in pediatric patients are still unclear in many circumstances. There are also several particularities related to device implantation in pediatric age, such as the somatic growth leading to a mismatch between chamber size and lead length, or the difficulties of implantation technique in children with small body weight. This study aims to present an update on the current advantages and limitations of device-based therapy for treating severe malignant arrhythmia or conduction disorders in children at risk for sudden cardiac death.

Open access

Adrian Corneliu Iancu, Mihaela Ioana Dregoesc, Aurelia Solomoneanu and Theodora Benedek

Abstract

Patients with acute myocardial infarction (AMI) complicated with cardiogenic shock (CS) present one of the highest mortality rates recorded in critical care. Mortality rate in this setting is reported around 45-50% even in the most experienced and well-equipped medical centers. The continuous development of ST-segment elevation acute myocardial infarction (STEMI) networks has led not only to a dramatic decrease in STEMI-related mortality, but also to an increase in the frequency of severely complicated cases who survive to be transferred to tertiary centers for life-saving treatments. The reduced effectiveness of vasoactive drugs on a severely altered hemodynamic status led to the development of new devices dedicated to advanced cardiac support. What’s more, efforts are being made to reduce time from first medical contact to initiation of mechanical support in this particular clinical context. This review aims to summarize the most recent advances in mechanical support devices, in the setting of CS-complicated AMI. At the same time, the review presents several modern concepts in the organization of complex CS centers. These specialized hubs could improve survival in this critical condition.

Open access

Bernadette Kerekes-Máthé, Csaba Dudás, Nóra Csergő and Krisztina Mártha

Abstract

Background: Measurement-based studies are prone to measurement errors, which occur at the same operator or between different operators during repeated measurements of the same sample.

Aim of the study: To assess the inter-operator reliability of morphometric measurements using a bidimensional image analysis method.

Material and methods: Eight study models have been selected, images of teeth and models were taken from vestibular and occlusal view. The following parameters were measured individually by three, previously trained operators: mesio-distal, occluso-gingival, and vestibulo-oral dimensions, vestibular and occlusal area, depth of palatal arch, arch breadth, arch circumference, and arch length. Intraclass correlation coefficients were calculated for each measurement.

Results: The reliability of the measurements showed high degrees, all values being higher than 0.8.

Conclusions: Dental morphometric measurements done by 2D image analysis can be performed by multiple operators with an excellent reliability.

Open access

Flavius Mocian, Ruxandra Oancea and Marius Coroș

Abstract

We present the case of a 48-year-old patient with a recurrent rectovaginal fistula, who we treated surgically by transposing the gracilis muscle. The patient with a history of ulcerative colitis underwent colorectal resection with mechanical anastomosis and diverting ileostomy for rectal cancer. She was subsequently treated by radiation and chemotherapy. Six weeks later, the ileostomy was removed, but afterwards the patient developed a recto-vaginal fistula. A new diverting ileostomy was performed. After eight months, a transvaginal surgical procedure was performed, and the diverting ileostomy was closed after four months. Two years after the last surgery, the patient performed an MRI scan, which revealed the relapse of the rectovaginal fistula. This time the patient was reoperated using a flap of the gracilis muscle interposed between the rectum and the vagina, but the patient refused any diverting stoma. The rectovaginal fistula relapsed again after thirteen days. Fortunately, after six months of intensive systemic and local treatment with aminosalicilic-5-acid, the fistula closed by itself. Our conclusion is that with a well-managed medical treatment, the gracilis flap, because of its good vascular supply, could be successfully used to treat rectovaginal fistulas even in patients with ulcerative colitis who underwent rectal surgery and radiation therapy for cancer.

Open access

Anca E. Chiriac, Adrian Naznean, Cristian Podoleanu, Simona Stolnicu and Anca Chiriac

Abstract

Superficial venous malformations can be clinically diagnosed since birth as localized, bluish or purple lesions, especially on the lower extremity, but deep venous malformations are difficult to diagnose only by clinical appearance. The diagnostic algorithm for superficial venous malformations in newborns includes clinical examination and Duplex ultrasonography. The latter allows differentiating tumors (hemangiomas) from vascular malformations and evaluating flow characteristics as well as localizing the site of the malformation.